cars

Plymouth 1946-1959, the book

Plymouth cars of 1956: The ship becomes a plane

1956 Plymouth line

Chevrolet, Ford, and Plymouth all entered 1956 with mildly restyled facelifts of the new cars introduced the year before. The new Ford and Chevys relied mainly on revamped side trim, grilles, and taillamps to set them apart from 1955's cars. Like the others, Plymouth retained the old body, but added new quarter panels to dramatically change the overall shape of the body to what Exner called "airfoil" styling.

One inch longer than the 1955 and slimmer and taller, the airfoil fenders trailed off into space "leaving no question that the car is racing forward," according to the data book. Slashed at a steep angle, the fenders gave the car a "flying away" look when viewed from the side or the rear. Airfin taillights, slim and tapered to emphasize the height and sweep of the rear fenders, and a “jet-like tub” back-up lamp housing all emphasized the aeronautical theme of the car. New body moldings, especially those of the Belvedere, emphasized the “aerodynamic, ready for take off” look. Topping off each rear fender was Exner's new "Forward Look" emblem on Belvedere and Sport Suburban models.

1956 Plymouth Savoy

Gary Whitehead added: “The 1956 Plymouth Convertible was also available as a 6 cylinder flathead in Canada. The Belvedere convertible of 1956 is the V-8 and the Savoy convertible of 1956 is the six; both were made in Canada, for Canadian sale. I had one, a rare car, Canada only, and a very plain looking convertible; most were one-tone because of the skimpy chrome.”

Front sheet metal changed little from previous models, but the design tended to complement the extended rear quarters. The fenders thrust forward, canting back as they fell closer to the bumper. A slightly revised grille bar featured a grid pattern in the center of the bar, adorned with a gold V when the car was equipped with V-8 power. Trusting that everyone knew what make of car it was, the word Plymouth appeared only on the hood.

The new design also called for a break with tradition — for the first time since 1928, the Mayflower sailing ship did not appear on the front of the car, being replaced by a "jet plane hood ornament pointing up the fast, forward flow of body lines." For the traditionalist, the jet plane was the same abstract boat that had been used in 1955, with the addition of a pair of wings to turn it magically into a jet plane.

1956 Plymouth Belvedere car in water

Appearing on the bottom of the hood and on the deck lid ornaments were Plymouth's coat of arms. The deck lid ornament continued to use two styles-a V for cars with V-8 engines and a straight bar for 6-cylinder cars. There were also new pull-type exterior door handles, replacing 1955's one-year-only push-button handles. Unseen, but a selling point, were new safeguard door latches that placed a U-shaped striker of heavy-gauge metal on the door pillar into an interlocking "U" on the door latch. These interlocking "U"s prevented fore and aft separation of the latch from the door post in crash situations.

1956 door latch

Plaza and Savoy models had to settle for side trim virtually unchanged from 1955. The rather busy and unusual Belvedere side trim incorporated a straight spear running from the leading edge of the front fender to the rear edge of the front door. Several inches below this another straight spear ran from the center of the front door back to the backup light housing. The two were connected by a dogleg horizontal piece and a heavy medallion bearing the word "Belvedere." Once again this layout provided the basis for Sportone two-tone paint combinations.

1956 Plymouth Savoy

By October, MoPar had released a Sportone molding package for in-field installation on all Plaza and Savoy models. These moldings differed only in not having the model name on the side medallion, retailing for $16 and $27 per package depending on body style. (Mike Riebe wrote: “this is my 1956 Plymouth Savoy two-door hardtop. Note the Belvedere-like Sportone trim. The chrome plate on the door has slashes in place of the word “Belvedere.”)

1956 Plymouth Savoy with Sportone trim

Plymouth engineers had been equally busy with the car's interior. Answering complaints about the placement of the oil pressure and temperature gauges in front of the passenger, Plymouth moved them in front of the driver. On the downside, they were changed from readable gauges to "idiot" lights. Because the dash panel had gone unchanged, there was no room for the gauges in front of the driver, hence the switch to warning lights. Replacing the gauges in front of the passenger were the heater-defroster controls, a move that made them unhandy for the driver. These controls had been mounted on the lower left corner of the dash, where the transmission controls now lived.

The 1955 Plymouth had shocked the motoring world by sticking the automatic transmission control lever through the dashboard near the driver's right knee cap. For 1956, Plymouth drivers had to learn to use their left hand for this operation as Plymouth (and the rest of the corporation's cars) went to push-button shifting on automatic cars.

pushbuttons

Pushbutton transmissions were the rage during the late 1950s—Mercury, Edsel, Rambler, and Packard all had their fling with push-button controls. Of the lot, only Chrysler's was mechanically controlled and virtually trouble free. Regardless, Chrysler's "typewriter" transmission controls were a love it or hate it proposition. The push-button transmission would remain a Chrysler hallmark until 1965, when it was abandoned in favor of (and under government edict to standardize shift quadrants throughout the industry) the normal shift lever on the steering column.

PowerFlitePlymouth entered 1956 with virtually the same model line-up as 1955. 6-cylinder cars were coded as the P28 series, V-8 cars as P29s. Again, the suffix number indicated the car's model. Plazas were either P28-1 or P29-1, Savoys P28-2 or P29-2, and Belvederes P28-3 or P29-3.

At the top of the line was the Belvedere series, available in four-door, club sedan (two-door), sport coupe, or convertible coupe body styles. New for the year was Plymouth's first Sport Sedan, a true four-door hardtop. Plymouth stressed this new model was full size, giving front and rear seat passengers the same room as a sedan in an open model. To achieve the open air status, the rear window was a complicated two-piece affair. When the window was being opened, the rear section arced forward and down, while the front section moved rearward slightly and then straight down. The Sport Sedan sold reasonably well but still managed to outsell only the convertible in the Belvedere line up.

1956 PowerFlow Six

The Sport Sedan, like the rest 0f the Belvedere line, was offered with either 6- or 8-cylinder power, with the exception of the Belvedere convertible which mandated eight cylinders. Savoy buyers had the choice of a four-door sedan, club sedan (two door), and a sport coupe in either 6- or 8‚ cylinder form. Plaza buyers were also given the choice of 6- or 8-cylinder power in the three models offered, which included a four door, club sedan (two door), or business coupe. Like the club sedan, the business coupe was a two door designed for the traveling salesman. lt. came without a rear seat, but could be ordered with a V-8.

Station wagon buyers were given four choices as wagon sales continued to grow (to better than 14 percent of total 1956 production). Corresponding to the Belvedere line was the Sport Suburban four door wagon. Next in line was the Custom Suburban, again a four door. The Custom Suburban line also included a two-door wagon, as was the bottom-of-the-line Deluxe Suburban wagon. All four wagons could be had with either 6- or 8-cylinder power.

1956 Plymouth Belvedere cars

Chassis and powertrain

Chassis-wise the 1956 Plymouth was little more than a clone of the 1955s. Six-cylinder cars were fitted with 10in brakes front and rear, V-8 cars got 11 inch brakes on the front only, and station wagons wore 11 inch brakes all the way around. Gear ratios were 3.73 on standard transmission and PowerFlite 6-cylinder cars, 3.54 on PowerFlite V-8s, and 4.1 with overdrive.

Plymouth chassis

Plymouth continued to mount its parking brake on the transmission, relying on the tried and true external contracting brake band on standard shift cars. PowerFlite, due to its method of construction, had an internal expanding parking brake.

Power brakes continued to be a popular option, with Plymouth offering two versions, including a new air-suspended system for PowerFlite cars (with an 8 inch wide brake pedal sitting 4-1/2 inch above the floor) and the old vacuum-suspended type for standard transmission cars (with a pedal 6 inch off the floor to match the clutch pedal height). The PowerFlite brake system included a reserve tank mounted on the left fender-well under the hood.

front suspension

The big news under the hood was Plymouth's new Hy-Fire V-8—this time its own engine designed and built by Plymouth. In many respects the new engine was much like the old one and even looked the same (the new engine was most identifiable by its saw-toothed valve covers). Plymouth engineers made the block slightly longer, with more "meat" between the cylinder bores, installed a larger crankshaft with larger bearings, and enlarged the valve ports for better breathing.

hyfire v8

valvesThe new 277 cid 187 hp engine was exclusive to Belvedere and Sport Suburbans and had a bore and stroke of 3.75x3.13 inches; the old "Dodge" 270ci 180hp Hy-Fire was carried over for use in Plaza and Savoy models.

Both engines shared an 8:1 compression ratio and developed their maximum horsepower at 4400 rpm. For those wanting more power, the 277 was available with a power pack that included a four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts and developed an even 200 hp.

Later in the model year, a potent 303 cid engine would make its appearance in the Fury. This engine, which had grown to 318 cid by 1957, would continue in use through 1967 before seeing any major revisions.

By year's end, fully 60 percent of Plymouth's 1956 production would be fitted with V-8s. The new V-8 made its first public appearance three weeks prior to the unveiling of the new models at the NHRA Nationals held in Great Bend, Kansas. Plymouth offered a special prize of a brand new 277 cid V-8 to the hot-rodder posting the fastest time with a Plymouth.

powerflite

Despite the industry-wide popularity of V-8s, 40 percent of Plymouth buyers chose the tried and true 230 cid "PowerFlow" six Plymouth shared with Dodge. The Dodge version, with a two-barrel carburetor, pumped out 131 hp at 3600 rpm. Plymouth's single-barrel version could muster only 125 hp. Not to be outdone, Plymouth offered buyers a Power Pack for the six. Consisting of a Stromberg dual throat carburetor, special intake manifold, larger air cleaner and a 3.9 rear-axle ratio, PowerFlow with Power Pack raised Plymouth's horsepower to 131. Highly sought after by today's enthusiasts, the 6-cylinder power pack is very rare.

overdrive

As the demand made by more electrical accessories grew, it became apparent the old 6-volt system could no longer suffice; for 1956 it was abandoned in favor of 12-volt electrics. An increased capacity generator and new starting motor were part of the system. Long-reach resistor spark plugs, a single-point distributor, and weatherproofed ignition helped ensure reliable performance of the system during wet weather conditions.

splay mounted springs

Power steering, power brakes, and air conditioning were becoming more common, but highlighting the accessory group was "Hiway Hi-Fi," a record player for a car. Hiway Hi-Fi originally required ordering the new Electro Touch-Tune Model 916 radio. Later, the system would work with any 800 or 900 series radio offered in any Chrysler product.

chassis diagram

Utilizing special records and a needle that wasn't supposed to skip on rough roads, the records turned at just 16-2/3 rpm. At $56.95 (which included six records), plus $2.55 for the mounting bracket, Hiway Hi-Fi wasn't terribly expensive, but the market for a car record player never really existed, making Hiway Hi-Fi units extremely rare today. The same unit was available across the board for all Chrysler cars and lasted through the 1960 model year before being discontinued.

Taxi and police use

oriflow shocksPlymouth also continued to offer special packages for police and taxi use (1956 marked the first use of specially prepared sales catalogs for the taxi market). As usual, these packages included heavy-duty chassis springs, heavy-duty shock absorbers, heavier gauge wire springs in the seat and seatback cushions, battery heat shields, and a 70 amp-hour battery. Straight stick cars with PowerFlow used a 10 inch clutch plate, while V-8 cars used an 11 inch clutch. All 6-cylinder taxis fitted with the heavy-duty clutch also received a special cylinder head raising compression to 7.9:1 (this head, part number 1676377, replaced the regular head part number 1616823).

Individual items available at extra cost on these packages included a rear-seat ashtray on Plaza and Deluxe Suburbans, 11 inch front brakes on 6-cylinder taxicabs, two special "city traffic" Carter carburetors on 6-cylinder cars (Carter models 2063 S or 2063 SA and Carter 2062 S and 2062 SA), a 20 gal capacity gas tank (recommended for use only on taxis), a Handy governor on 6-cylinder cars, automatic dome light switches on rear doors, and a variety of heavy-duty generators for police work.

The Plymouth Fury

Things were changing at Plymouth. The image of the old maid's car was being turned around. Helping change that image was Plymouth's 1956 introduction of the hairy-chested Fury. Tom McCahill probably said it best when he wrote in the September 1956 issue of Mechanix Illustrated, "Five years ago, if performance figures such as these were published for a full-sized Plymouth, I'd have been whipped into a straitjacket and mailed to the nearest headshrinkers convention." What MaCahill was crowing about was Plymouth's entry into the muscle car field—an egg-shell white two-door hard top garnished with gold anodized aluminum and called, simply, Fury.

Curtis Redgap wrote:
The big 1956 Chrysler 300B blew everything else off the beach, including the stock models of the Chevrolet Corvette and Ford Thunderbird. It set a two way record of 139.373 miles an hour. ... Then the driver, Mr. Phil Walters, took the Fury slowly down to the start of the timing lane. ... It was screaming over the sand so fast, that to look at it was almost like a distorted picture. You couldn't quite focus fully on it. It was moving like the wind! ... With a resounding boom and a flash of gold, it was gone, the engine defiantly pounding out its deep belly staccato tune with bass notes better than any musical orchestra. The timers acted like they were in slow motion. Finally ... the numbers rolled over. ... 143.596 miles an hour! The fastest Plymouth ever built in history. And even faster than the 300B.

... Then the big Fury started back. ... About 1/2 way through the run up, approaching the timing lane, the engine started to die. ... It broke the timer at 129.119 miles an hour. ... A defective fuel cap had caused a vacuum in the fuel tank and starved the engine for gas. The next day, with a new cap, and of course without NASCAR sanctioning, the big Fury roared through the timer on a third run at 147.236 miles an hour. On the return trip, it broke the lights at 149.124 miles an hour!

The hood nameplate and ornament, grille insert, and turbine wheel covers were gold. Even the interior wore the gold and white theme; the seat insets featuring a golden metallic thread against white bolsters, with window garnish moldings in shiny chrome plate. The instrument panel was based on the Belvedere sport coupe and remained unchanged with one exception: a small 6000 rpm tachometer located inconveniently by the ignition switch.

Under the hood was a Canadian-sourced 303 cid V-8 pumping out an honest 240 hp at 4800 rpm. A bore and stroke of 3-13/16x3-5/16 inch produced compression of 9.25:1, and air and fuel were mixed by a single Carter WCFB 2442 S four-barrel carburetor. Reinforced dome pistons, a high-performance camshaft, high-load valve springs, balanced connecting rods, and high-speed distributor rounded out the engine package. Horsepower reached the road through either a standard transmission backed by a heavy-duty 10 inch Borg & Beck clutch and pressure plate or a heavy-duty PowerFlite automatic designed for use in big Dodges.

Furys rode on 7.10x15 inch 4-ply nylon cord black sidewall tires mounted on 5-1/2 inch rims. The standard rear-end ratio was 3.73 with options of 3.54, 3.9, 4.1, or 4.3:1. Heavy-duty (six leaves) springs were fitted front and rear. Eleven-inch brakes at all four corners brought the car to a halt, and heavy-duty sway bars helped the big Plymouth track a straight line down the road. The Fury sat 1 inch lower than its Belvedere stable mate, giving the car a leaner appearance.

"The Fury is a small 300B," MaCahill wrote, referring to Chrysler's muscle car. Unlike the Chrysler 300s, which cleaned up at the nation's race tracks during 1955 and 1956, the Fury achieved little racing success. The Fury had set a one-way record of 143.598 mph on January 7 during the annual Daytona Beach Speed Week with a two-way average of 136.415 mph. (Contradictory speeds were reported, ranging from 123.440 to 124.611 for the two-way average speed. While some cars that had participated were later declared illegal, the Fury's record was upheld when the car was certified legally stock.) Regardless, Plymouth had shattered the record previously held by Cadillac at 112.295 mph.

For speed enthusiasts, Plymouth released a dealer-installed High Performance Package in the spring of 1956. Retailing for $746.90, the kit included dual four-barrels, special air cleaners, an aluminum intake manifold, high-performance camshaft and tappets, a hand choke assembly, and all necessary linkage to hook everything up. This kit was available for both the 277 cid Belvedere V-8 and the Fury 303 cid V-8. The kit raised the 277's horsepower to 230 while upping the Fury's to 270 hp.

Performance testing the 1956 Plymouths

Motor Trend put the new Plymouths to the test, pitting a 277 cid Belvedere against a Fury and a Belvedere club sedan equipped with a McCulloch supercharger. The regular Belvedere ran 0-60 mph in 11.9 seconds, the Fury in 9.5 seconds, and the supercharged car in 8.2 seconds. In the ¼ mile, the normally aspirated Belvedere reached 76 mph in 18.9 seconds, and the Fury hit 83.5 mph in 16.9 seconds. Both were again outclassed by the supercharged Belveredere which ran 84.8 mph run at 16.7 seconds.

1956 Plymouths

Further Motor Trend tests found the Belvedere would deliver 16.6 mpg at a steady 60 mph, recording the same as a Chevrolet Bel Air; both bested the Ford Fairlane's 16.1 mpg. The only cars bettering these mileage figures were the Studebaker Champion with overdrive (21.7 mpg), Rambler Custom (19.9 mpg), Oldsmobile Super 88 (l7.6 mpg), and the Studebaker Golden Hawk (16.7 mpg).

1956

In top speed testing, Chevrolet took top honors at 108 mph, followed closely by the 107.1 mph Belvedere, Ford was way behind at 100.2 mph.

Styling and interiors

Upholstery materials continued to receive much attention; Belvederes received seats upholstered in key-pattern Aztec cloth, with seatback inserts of pleated satin vinyl. The pleated vinyl was placed as an insert in the all-vinyl side trim with floors covered in carpet. Belvedere convertible buyers had the choice of Aztec cloth and satin vinyl or
all vinyl upholstery. Convertible tops could be had in white, black, blue, or green.

1956 Plymouth Savoy

The Belvedere interiors came in four “fashion-matched" colors, including two-tone green, two-tone blue, brown with
cream, or black and rose. A fifth combination included black cloth with white vinyl and a gray headliner. Belvedere Sport Sedans boasted an exclusive upholstery pattern of Mosaic Weave with Satin vinyl bolsters, a combination repeated on the door panels with harmonizing floor carpeting. Sport Sedan combinations included two-tone green, two-tone turquoise, black with rose, brovm with cream, and black and white.

Savoy upholstery included Sorrento Stripe cloth in combination with Satin vinyl bolsters. Door and side panels featured a central insert of pleated vinyl with satin vinyl above and below, while floors were covered in a color-matched rubber mat. The Savoy line offered four color combinations of two-tone green, two-tone blue, brown with cream, and gray with charcoal. Plaza buyers were offered just three color combinations— two-tone green, two-tone blue, and light gray with silver "Plazacord" accented by satin vinyl bolsters on seat cushions and seatbacks. Door and side panels were finished in matching Satin vinyl floors covered with black rubber mats. Plaza and Savoy club
sedan and four-door sedan buyers (along with Plaza business coupe buyers) could opt for a tan all-and-leatherette at additional cost.

dashboard

Sport Suburbans had seats upholstered in Sportspun Tweed enriched with metallic threads on the seatback inserts and central side panels. Seatbacks, seat cushion facings, and lower door panels were of Stardust Vinyl, with headliners of Royalite. Cargo areas were covered with ribbed Vinoleum (a vinyl coated linoleum). Front floors were covered with a tan rubber mat. This brown-beige seat and door panel combination was featured in all Sport Suburban models with garnish moldings and instrument panel painted in green, turquoise, brown, or black to match the exterior color of the car.

suburban

Custom Suburbans, in either two- or four-door body styles, had completely different patterns in Ventilating Vinyl, a woven cloth faced with vinyl in a "golftee" pattern. Door panels were also all vinyl with Satin vinyl in the upper section and pleated vinyl below. Floors were covered with either black or tan mats while the cargo area was covered with beige Vinoleum. Upholstery colors included brown with cream, two-tone green, and black with silver. Headliners were again of Royalite in either beige, green, or gray.

Reflecting its bottom-of-the-line status, two-door Deluxe Suburban buyers were given a single charcoal-gray textured vinyl upholstery with bolsters of silver-gray satin vinyl in a distinctive V pattern. Door and side panels were also textured vinyl while the headliner was gray Royalite. Unlike the other wagons in the line-up both the floor and cargo areas of the Deluxe Suburban were covered with black rubber mats.

Other models and changes; 1956 Plymouth sales

Early in March, PowerFlite transmissions changed from malleable iron to aluminum carriers with transmissions date coded C-7-56 and later. This change required that aluminum carriers be fitted with proper replacement parts, which did not interchange with the iron carriers. About the same time PowerFlite and overdrive deck lid nameplates were discontinued on all models.

savoy logoShortly before the end of the model run "as a signal honor to St. Louis Plymouth dealers and salesmen whose records stand high among the nation's sales," Plymouth put out a regular Plymouth sedan with a new color scheme designed especially for the St. Louis market. The St. Louis Blues Special was painted white on the upper body with a Gazelle blue on the lower body and roof of the car. Featuring Sportone trim, the car was like any other Plymouth with the exception of the paint scheme, which could not be ordered anywhere else in the U.S. Manufactured at the Evansville plant, the St. Louis Blues Special retailed for $1,776, including heater, whitewall tires, two-tone paint, and Sportone trim. No records were kept as to how many St. Louis Blues Specials were built or sold.

In another paint-related episode, Detroit's Petzold Motors gained national attention by announcing that they would paint 100 Plymouths in glow-in-the-dark colors at no extra cost for an introductory period of two weeks. Developed by 3M, the glow-in-the-dark paint was sprayed over the regular finish. Available in green, blue, brown, and Magenta Red, the colors were claimed to be visible 1500-1700 feet away at night compared to less than half that distance for normally painted vehicles. How many people took up Petzold on the offer was not noted and 3M's luminous paint never caught on, at least in the automobile industry.

The end of the model year was marked by an industry-wide downturn from the record year of 1955. Plymouth sales were off 37%, dropping from 1955's 743,000 cars to 571,000. As in 1955, Plymouth found itself in fourth place, trailing Chevrolet, Ford, and Buick. Nonetheless, one new Plymouth still rolled off the assembly line every 20 seconds (total assembly time per car was just 53 minutes). Airfoil styling had come to Plymouth, pointing the way into the future—just how far into the future was just around the corner.

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