The Dodge Lancer and Chrysler LeBaron GTS
The H-body Dodge Lancer and Chrysler LeBaron GTS were well-tuned variants of the basic extended K-car platform, sold from 1985 to 1989. Unlike the Dynasty/LeBaron, these cars felt tight and cornered surprisingly well, winning the hearts of many Americans. Dodge promoted it as “the sports car for kids with kids of their own,” pointing out the “affordable sports car” feel, performance, and cornering.
|Chrysler LeBaron GTS||5.63 sec||6.20 sec||.861 g||136 ft|
|Mercedes 190E||6.83 sec||6.35 sec||.829 g||138 ft|
|BMW 528e||7.14 sec||6.56 sec||.814 g||140 ft|
Suspension components were engineered to make the car more responsive and maneuverable. Control was more precise; the firm suspension provided a better feel for the road than the "cushy" ride in traditional American sedans, but this firmness didn't punish the rider. The Chrysler LeBaron GTS and Dodge Lancer were quiet and comfortable, despite chassis dynamics equaling more expensive import sedans.
Officially designated H-bodies using Chrysler's body naming system, the Lancer and LeBaron GTS were sold only as four-door hatchbacks; the suspension was based on the Daytona, but the bodies were lengthened to create the needed interior space.
The Lancer name had been used on Dodge's version of the compact Valiant in 1961-62; Mitsubishi had used it in Japan since the early 1970s, and would later bring it back to the US. The LeBaron GTS name was chosen because the LeBaron was currently popular, and the GTS label would both bring recognition to this model and more allure to the other model.
The Lancer/LeBaron GTS used the proven Chrysler front semi-independent iso-strut design and trailing arm rear suspension. The basic Road Touring suspension was tuned to in-city use while still making the car fun to drive on other roads. The Sport Handling package was tighter. Some changes from lower cars included gas shocks, five lugs on each wheel, and superior tires (with Eagle GTs on higher trim lines).
The suspension included large front and rear sway bars (solid and tubular, respectively); dual path upper strut mounts; a constant camber, trailing arm beam rear axle with coil springs; and a fast-ratio power steering gear with a precision response valve for handling ease. Standard tires were 185/70R14 Goodyear Vector or Michelin XA4. Spring rates in the standard suspension were 85 pounds per inch in front and 160 in the rear.
The Sport Handling package added higher-control front struts, rear shocks, and springs, and 14 inch Goodyear Eagle GT tires. Sport Handling II added longer jounce bumpers, restricted steering, 15 inch Shelby-style cast aluminum road wheels, and 15 inch Eagle GT tires. Spring rates on either Sport Handling package were 120 lb./in. in front and 200 in the rear.
Burton Bouwkamp wrote,
We had to delay the "H" Body [Lebaron GTC and Dodge Lancer] more than six months when Hal Sperlich, my boss, saw the latest Toyota Tiger (I think?) and Nissan Leopard cars at the Tokyo Auto Show. After that trip he decided to move the glass planes outboard by 3/8" to make the side glass more flush with exterior door and quarter sheet metal. That involved a complete redesign of the glass drop mechanism and door/window seals, as well as exterior sheet metal changes.
Both versions were available in two trim levels; for Dodge, these were Lancer and Lancer ES, and for Chrysler, Highline and Premium. GTS models did not have trim badging. Almost all models had front bucket seats with a center console. There was an option of a center cushion and deletion of the console to make a bench type front seat and make the car a six passenger vehicle, but very few were ordered with it.
The Lancer and LeBaron GTS were developed using computer-aided design and engineering.
They used a horizontal barred grille, with quad halogen headlamps, sharply sloping hood, and aerowrapped windshield which raked back at a high angle to reduce drag. The windshield and liftback glass was flush-mounted to the body metal to reduce wind resistance. Door handles were recessed and semi-flush mounted to improve aerodynamics. The top of the door panels projected into the roof, concealing drain troughs. Despite all that, the Lancer ended up with a drag coefficient (cD) of 0.37 – better than that of the Sundance that was to follow, but not even in the same class as the later Neon. Chrysler appeared to be proud of it at the time, despite their 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona’s easily beating it, with a much larger car.
The 2.2 liter single-overhead-cam four-cylinder in-line engine was used, with either a single fuel injector or with a turbocharger and four fuel injectors. The single-injector (TBI, or throttle body injector) powerplant produced 99 horsepower; the turbocharger and multiple port injection raised that to 146 horsepower. In both cases, the engine was tuned for more torque than horsepower, and could be purchased with either a close-ratio five-speed manual overdrive transaxle or an optional three-speed automatic.
The turbocharged engine could actually get better mileage, thanks to the multiple port injection; even in EPA figures the five-speed turbo did about as well as the single-injector automatic. Though the turbocharger was fairly mild, it greatly boosted power and made the Lancer much more fun to drive. In 1986, the 2.5 liter four-cylinder (with 100 horsepower and single throttle-body fuel injector) became available as an option to add a bit more low-end torque; it continued through to the end. The turbo car, at launch, added a computer boost control system, which could allow ten second bursts of 9 psi boost, rather than the usual limit of 7.2 psi, without letting the turbocharger exceed 1650°F.
When launched in 1985, Lancer ES / LeBaron GTS was one of the quickest sedans in America, with Car & Driver reporting 0-60 times of 8.1 seconds and quarter-mile of 16.3 @ 85 mph (turbo, five speed); they said it had minimal turbo lag over 2,500 rpm, with “impressively smooth” throttle response. They also praised its track and highway performance, both cornering and ride, and noted the “proper” dead pedal and well designed controls. (The automatic sapped power — with the same engine and on the same track, C&D reported 0-60 in 9.3 and a quarter mile of 16.9 @ 83.)
Galvanized metals were used extensively in producing the Lancer and Lancer ES, both of which were extremely corrosion resistant. They were treated with a urethane protective coating on the lower body side panels to resist chipping, and were covered by a five year/50,000-mile corrosion warranty. The new facility at Sterling Heights, Mich., provides a hospital-clean environment that assured a totally dirt free operation. Everyone entering the paint area passed through an air sealed chamber and foot pond to remove loose dust or dirt from clothing and shoes. Workers wore special gowns and surgical caps over their regular clothing. Throughout the facility there were 113 small ponds, or "lagoons," where continuously running water attracted particles from the air.
The 550,000-square-foot facility used a wide range of processes for creating a top quality, durable paint finish on each Lancer body, including a 10-stage phosphate pre-paint system, an eight-stage uniprime system, two lines for color application by high-voltage electrostatic reciprocators, turbobell sprayers, four ovens with radiant heat and convection heat zones, and 26 miles of stainless steel piping.
The Lancer was fairly light on its feet at 2,600-2,750 pounds (1,179 kg), but it felt surprisingly solid. The weight distribution was 63/37, front/rear. The standard stereo was an AM/FM/MX electronically-tuned stereo radio, with integral electronic clock. A cassette system was available along with the AM/stereo, FM/stereo, electronically-tuned radio with cassette player, five-channel graphic equalizer, and joy-stick controlled speakers. The latter was useful when one wanted to quickly divert sound to one speaker, but tended to require a bit too much attention when making small adjustments.
When driving a 180,000-mile 1989 LeBaron GTS 2.5 turbo in the mid-1990s, we were surprised by the cushy, quiet interior, the capable cornering, and the pleasant acceleration, which was smoother than we expected. It was indeed a very good car to drive.
The Lancer and LeBaron GTS were sold from 1985 through 1989; all models were built at new Sterling Heights, Michigan plant that Chrysler acquired from Volkswagen. For the final year, the LeBaron version became simply "LeBaron" because the K-based LeBaron four door was gone, and the former GTS premium became the LeBaron GTS. The Lancer Shelby continued into the 1989 model year with the intercooled 2.2 Turbo II. The 'plain' 2.2 turbocharged motor was replaced in 1989 by a new 2.5 turbocharged motor; neither was intercooled, and the main advantage of the 2.5 was better off-the-line performance (without needing to load the engine) and smoother acceleration which befitted a car of the Lancer/GTS’ feel and class. Unlike many front wheel drive Chrysler products of the 1980s, the H-body was never available with any Mitsubishi sourced powertrain.
Several things led to the demise of the H-bodies. Americans never seemed to catch on to the idea of a big four door hatchback; the hatchback was, to Americans, an economy car. The A-body introduced in 1989 (Dodge Spirit / Plymouth Acclaim) and 1990 (Chrysler LeBaron) would be Chrysler's new main intermediate sedan. Finally, when Chrysler bought AMC from Renault, Chrysler agreed to sell a minimum number of vehicles of AMC/Renault design, to purchase components from Renault, and not to replace existing AMC/Renault models with Chrysler models. The former AMC brand would be renamed Eagle and target the Euro-sedan market, which was what the Lancer and LeBaron GTS were created for. The AMC/Renault-designed Premier would take over that spot, and be marketed as a Dodge Monaco in 1990 to achieve efficiency and sales volume of that model. The styling of the H bodies was used, almost exactly, on the early Sundance/Shadow P bodies. Both were based on the G body, but the P was smaller, had a firmer suspension, and sold at a considerably lower price point.
Today, not too many of these exist any more, and they have not gained collector status. A Shelby version, or well appointed Lancer ES or LeBaron GTS model, might be one to hang on to, but since the Lancer name was not used for long - and since the LeBaron name was only briefly applied to a car of this type - collector status may not arrive for many years.
In 1987, Lancer added a high-performance Shelby-badged model with the intercooled motor, using the Turbo II induction system on the Turbo I block, producing 175 horsepower, a rear, roof-mounted spoiler, and ground effects along with the increased performance. The turbocharger used an 11.5 x 6.25 x 3 inch aluminum air-to-air intercooler, capable of cooling the air down by a full 100° Farenheit, with a maximum boost of 12 psi. As always, Shelby used Monroe Formula GP gas sport struts with coilover springs; front swaybars were 1 1/16”, rears were 1 1/8”. Front brakes were 10.1” x 0.94” vented discs, while the rears were 10.6” solid discs. Quick-ratio (14:1) power steering was used, and the pedals were replaced for heel/toe capability if manual transmissions were ordered.
This model was not at all popular despite quite good acceleration and ground-holding, possibly because the very tight suspension ran counter to the car's general aura - that is, those who would think of buying a Lancer would probably not want such a harsh ride. In addition, it was very different from the fast-but-unsophisticated GLHS models, with their harsh ride and low tolerance of any road problems; it was also much pricier, at roughly $17,000 plus destination.
The Shelby Lancer, based on the high-end Lancer/LeBaron GTS, was loaded with luxury interior touches like power windows, locks, and driver's seat, air conditioning, warning chimes (instead of buzzers), full-length console, lighting package, overhead thermometer/compass, dual road lights, message center, dual remote control mirrors, tilt-wheel, and a leather-wrapped steering wheel. This time, the stereo was top of the line, with a Pioneer 120 watt CD player, 9-band graphic equalizer, two power amps, ten speakers, remote control for the rear seats, and anti-theft coding capability.
Bill Cuttita wrote:
Originally intended to be a subtle charcoal gray color, supply problems between Chrysler and Shelby forced it into the bold Graphic Red with black graphics. Based on the Lancer ES, 400 were produced with a manual transmission and cloth interior, and 380 were built with an automatic transmission and leather interior, costing an extra $1,000 MSRP. A handful of special-order cars were received with mix-and-match interiors and drivetrains, but were not available to the general public. All had four-wheel disc brakes (converted from the Daytona CS package), Monroe FormulaGP struts and shocks, 15 x 6.5-inch Shelby CSS mesh-spoke pattern cast aluminum wheels with 205/60VR 15 "Gatorbacks," larger swaybars, urethane bushings, performance-tuned springs, driving lights integrated into the blacked-out grille, trunklid spoiler, and a 10 speaker Pioneer DEX77 1 20 watt compact disc sound system with nine-band graphic equalizer, antitheft coding capability, and rear seat remote control.
The 0-60 time of 7.7 seconds, 15.7 seconds in the quarter-mile and .85g on the skid pad was terrific for a family-type sedan, but the car was not a hit in the showrooms.
Dodge also offered the Lancer Shelby as an upgrade to the Lancer ES with Turbo II/manual trans or Turbo I/automatic trans drivetrain options, the previous year's Shelby Lancer exterior goodies, Shelby swaybars and springs (but not brakes), color-keyed Pacifica wheels, and a rooftop air deflector, just like your mom's old Fury station wagon. The Lancer Shelby was offered in three colors: red, white, and black. Less than 300 were sold that year, and then they were discontinued.
Shelby’s advertisements compared the Lancer favorably to the Mercedes 190 (2.3 engine), Audo Turbo Quattro, and BMW 535i.
1985-86 Dodge Lancer and Chrysler LeBaron GTS specifications
|Overall Length||180.4||4581||Rear Headroom||37.9||963|
|Overhang Front||40.5||1029||Front legroom (MTX)||41.1||1044|
|Overhang Rear||36.8||935||Front legroom (ATX)||42.2||1072|
|Overall Width||68.3||1736||Rear legroom||36.8||935|
|Overall Height MVMA||53.0||1345||Front shoulder||56.1||1426|
|Front track||57.6||1464||Rear shoulder||56.0||1423|
|Rear track||57.2||1453||Knee Room||1.7||43|
|Frontal Area (base)||21.3 ft2||Front hip||51.6||1310|
|Ground Clearance||4.9”||126.0||Rear hip||51.9||1318|
|Coefficient of drag||.37 (base car)|
|Brake system||Vacuum power assisted|
|Front brakes||Discs, vented 10.2" x 0.94"|
|Rear breaks||Drums, self adjusting 8.0" x 1.28"|
|Standard Wheels||Base: 14"x 5.5" steel with wheel cover.
ES: 14"x 5.5" styled-steel with trim rings, unique hub and chrome nuts
|Optional Wheels||14"x 5.5" cast aluminum; 15"x 6" Shelby-style cast aluminum|
|Standard Tires||P185/70 R14 black sidewall (29 psi)|
|Optional Tires||P185/70 R14 narrow whitewall; P195/70 R14 Eagle GT (standard, ES);
P205/60 R15 Eagle GT (all 29 psi)
|Steering||Rack and Pinion, power assisted|
|Turns, lock to lock||2.2|
|Turning Circle||36.2 feet outside curb to curb (standard tires, steering)|
|Optional||Fast ratio with 2.0 turns, lock to lock (Only with 205/60 R15 Tire)|
|Turning circle||42.9 feet outside curb to curb (optional tires, steering)|
|Interior Volume||114.6 cubic feet (EPA volume index)|
|Cargo - Seats Up||18.3 cubic feet|
|Cargo - Rear Seats Down||42.0 cubic feet|
|EPA Volume Index||116.0|
|1985 Engine||2.2 TBI||2.2 Turbo I|
|Displacement||2213 cc/135 CID||2213 cc|
|Compression ratio||9.0: 1||8.2: 1|
|Horsepower||99 @ 5600||146 @ 5200|
|Torque (ft/lb)||121 @ 3200||168 @ 3600|
|Bore/Stroke||3.44" x 3.62"||3.44" x 3.62"|
|Coolant Capacity||8.5L (9.0 qts.)||8.5L (9.0 qts.)|
|Fuel Recommended||Unleaded (87 octane)||Premium (91 octane)|
|Overall Top Gear Ratio||2.57||3.02|
|MPH /1000 RPM (top gear)||27||23 (Neglecting torque converter slip)|
1985 Dodge Lancer and Chrysler LeBaron GTS standard features
- 2.2 liter electronic fuel injected 4 cylinder engine
- 5 Speed manual overdrive transaxle
- Road Touring Suspension featuring Dual Path Iso-Strut front suspension with gas-charged front struts and rear shocks, front and rear sway bars and Constant Camber Trailing Arm-Beam rear suspension
- Instrument cluster with tachometer, trip odometer, speedometer, and magnetic gauges for oil pressure, engine temperature, fuel and voltage, message center, incandescent-car graphic outline with warning for door ajar, liftback ajar, and washer fluid low
- Electronically tuned four-speaker FM stereo
- Reclining front bucket seats and folding rear bench seats
- Removable cargo compartment shelf
- Map pockets on both front doors
- Sun visors (driver with storage pocket, right with mirror)
- Remote liftgate
- Cargo area security system-for trunk-like security
- Remote fuel door and hood releases
- Side window de-misters
- 14 inch wheels
- P185/70 R14 BSW SBR tires (all weather tread)
- Black bodyside moldings, with bright edge
- Bodyside tape stripes, color-keyed
- Four halogen headlamps (separate brights)
- Soft front and rear bumper fascias with integral bright-edge black protective rub strips
- Concealed wipers
- Lights: glove-box, cargo bay, dome/courtesy
- Carpeting (passenger and cargo bay)
- Power brakes (front disc, self-adjusting rear drums)
- 335 amp maintenance free battery
- Compact spare and 14-gallon gas tank
The Lancer ES added:
- Black door pillar appliques, sill moldings, and front lower air dam
- Styled steel rallye wheels with trim rings and hub covers; P195/70 R14 Eagle GT tires
- Sport handling suspension
- Electronic instrument cluster (full gauge)
- Euro steering wheel
- Split 60/40 fold down rear seatback
- Integral rear seat headrests
- Upgraded door trim; courtesy lights on all four doors
A side range of single colors were available, along with two-tone schemes including:
- Desert Bronze Pearl Coat/Black Gold Dust Crystal Coat/ Mink Brown Pearl Coat
- Radiant Silver Crystal Coa t/ Gunmetal Blue Pearl Coat
Optional packages on Lancer included lighting, luxury equipment, popular equipment, sport-handling, and turbo-sport. The lighting and sport-handling packages were standard on ES, which offered all Lancer package as well as Electronics Feature I and II.
Power options included the driver’s seat, locks, and windows.
Comfort and convenience items included bi-level air conditioning, cruise control, tilt wheel, rear defroster, leather seats, illuminated entry, intermittent wipers, rear wiper/washer, sunroof, console with armrest, floor mats, sound insulation, and tinted glass. Other options included undercoating and a 500 amp battery.