New Process Gear and New Venture Gear
Founded in 1888, New Process Gear of Syracuse, New York, was a division of Willys Corporation when it was purchased in 1921 by GM founder William C. Durant. It was sold in 1934 to Walter Chrysler. New Process would make Chrysler’s four-wheel drive systems, transmissions, transaxles, and compounders.
In 1990, New Process Gear became part of New Venture Gear, the first joint manufacturing effort between leading U.S. automakers. It was re-formed as a jointly owned subsidiary of Acustar (a division of the Chrysler Corporation) and General Motors. This provided the company with GM’s underused transmission plant in Muncie, Indiana and reduced the need for Chrysler to risk as much capital on future investments. General Motors only owned a minority share, and had two directors to Chrysler’s four.
The New York Times reported, at the time, that “Chrysler's New Process Gear plant in East Syracuse, which employs about 2,000 workers, has been straining to fill orders for four-wheel drive transfer cases, manual transmissions and related transmission equipment. But Chrysler's financial resources have been squeezed, so an arrangement to use G.M.'s underused Muncie plant became more attractive than building more factory space."
David R. Zimmer was named as chairman and chief executive of the new company. He had been vice president and general manager of electronic products for Chrysler's components subsidiary. The six-member board of directors included four Chrysler nominees and two from G.M.
In June 1990, New Venture Gear signed a four-year deal to supply parts for Rover Group's new diesel-powered car; New Venture supplied the car’s five-speed transaxle.
The Neon manual transmission (NV-T350), introduced for the 1995 model year, was a major upgrade over prior manual transmissions at Chrysler, and replaced Getrag-built models used in past turbocharged and performance models. It used high capacity dual-cone brass synchronizers in first and second gear, with single-cone synchronizers of a paper friction material on the other gears, more durable and clash-resistant than brass. The paper-friction synchronizers were on the input shaft, lowering shift effort by cutting rotating inertia. A later, heavier duty version was used in the PT Cruiser, and a modified version (T-355) eventually found its way into the Compass, Patriot, and Caliber.
A reverse brake mechanism minimized reverse engagement clash, and getting into reverse was far easier than on prior models. Two-piece welded speed gears were shorter than single piece gears, to shorten shift travel and transaxle length; needle roller bearing on all speed gears reduced friction and extended gear life. The case was cast in two pieces to avoid leaks, with structural ribs to cut noise and add strength without adding weight; and the natural frequency was above the engine’s frequency at redline. Overall, the Neon’s manual transmission was considered to be tough — as it had to be to win as many races as it did — yet easy and even pleasurable to use.
In February 2002, General Motors sold its 36% stake in the company to DaimlerChrysler. The operation remained a separate company and continued to independently manage its business with General Motors and its other customers. Then, on September 29, 2004, DaimlerChrysler sold 80% of the company to Magna International for $435 million.
New Venture Gear obtained Chrysler's New Process Gear plant in Syracuse, N.Y. as well as a GM transmission plant in Muncie, Indiana. The New Process plant was renamed the New Process Gear Division of New Venture Gear.
The Syracuse, N.Y. facility produced transfer cases, transaxles and other automotive components, including the manual transaxle for the Dodge Neon and PT Cruiser (T-350) as well as the manual transaxles for Chrysler minivans (T-650 and T-750), which were exported to Europe after the first redesign.
The Muncie plant reverted to GM control, closing down in 2006; it was demolished after being turned over to Delaware County, Indiana.
A European operation, located in Roitzsch, Germany, was acquired directly by Magna and the remaining interest in New Process Gear, Inc. was acquired in September 2007. In early 2009, Magna decided to close the Syracuse, N.Y. plant. The Canadian auto parts maker, which was a lead bidder for Chrysler Group, and which had engineered the electric Ford Focus, had received major concessions from the United Auto Workers (UAW) in early 2008, but Daimler’s failure in replacing the Neon and a corresponding drop in Jeep sales following an unfortunate Liberty redesign resulted in a severe drop in demand. The closing eliminated 1,400 jobs.
New Venture Gear / New Process Gear transmissions and transfer cases
New Venture Gear produced two major transmissions for trucks and SUVs produced by Dodge, Jeep, Toyota, Ford and General Motors. They were the New Venture Gear 3500 (NV3500) and the New Venture Gear 4500 (NV4500).
New Venture made a name for itself with its 4-wheel drive and all-wheel drive (AWD) transfer-case applications. It greatly enhanced its reputation with the introduction of its hydro-mechanical progressive transfer case. Its first application of this technology, which was developed through a license form Asha Corp., was in supplying its NV 247 AWD transfer case in the 1999 Jeep Grand Cherokee, which Jeep called Quadra-Trac II.
The Quadra-Trac II transfer case did away with the Jeep's former viscous-coupled transfer unit. Until then, the viscous couplings, those fluid-filled transfer units that enable the driveline to progressively transfer and apportion driver torque between the front and rear axles, were the focal point to nearly all AWD systems in use.
NVG's progressive transfer case cost less than viscous units, but there were other benefits. In a 1999 article written for Ward's AutoWorld, Ronald Frawley, NVG chief engineer for transfer cases, said: "It's all in response time. The new unit essentially works in two-wheel drive until wheel-slippage is detected; then reaction time (to send drive to the other axle) is about 40 milliseconds. A viscous coupling can take two or three seconds to do the same thing."
Mr. Frawley told Ward's AutoWorld that it also “integrates seamlessly with antilock braking; viscous-coupled diffs have to allow 'freewheeling' under braking to avoid potential conflict between trying to drive all four wheels and trying to brake wheels that may be working with difference coefficients of friction. ... the interplay between the geroter pump and the progression of clutch lockup allows the unit to more easily tailor performance characteristics to a wide range of applications.”
New Venture also developed and built the “Rock-Trac” transfer case still used in Jeep Wranglers, which provides a 4:1 low gear.
New Process 435
The New Process 435 was made from 1962 to 1997, and used by Dodge trucks from 1962 to 1993; by Ford from 1966 to 1992; and by GM from 1968-72. Relatively low volume users included International Harvester. The 435 was around 11 inches long, and the Ford and GM versions had ten-spline input shafts while Dodge had a 23-spline input shaft (there were numerous other differences). There are two versions of the Dodge transmission, with a split in the late 1960s. Dodge used them on various trucks from half-ton to full-ton capacity.
The gear ratios also varied by manufacturer; all had a direct fourth gear, but the NP435A (Dodge and GM) had a 4.56 first gear, the NP435L and NP435E (Dodge and Ford) had a 6.68 first year, and the NP435D (GM) had a 4.90 first gear. (Second and third varied as well.) The unit was compact at around 11 x 19, but weighed 135 lb, with a cast iron case and aluminum cover. The Dodge and Ford versions are a popular adaptation for Jeeps.