allpar, the Chrysler - Dodge - Plymouth - Jeep site

Chrysler VIN Decoding, 1926 - 2005: Dodge, Plymouth, DeSoto, Jeep

These codes are valid in the United States and Canada. Other parts of the world may have different codes.

Anything you could add would be appreciated. Information was gathered from a wide variety of sources but mainly Chrysler materials. Thanks to Chris J. Carpenter for helping us compile much of this information, and to Kelsey Wright the final wrap-up. See the AMC VIN decoding page, engine codes page, and a very preliminary body tag page.

Warning: Federal law makes alteration of the VIN plate a felony punishable by up to $10,000 and ten years in prison. This means you cannot replace a VIN plate yourself, even when swapping dashboards or such; you need to have this done by a licensed mechanic working with a dealer, and filing all necessary paperwork. This also applies to any material changes to the overall VIN plate including paintwork.

1926 to 1958

WPCHRYSLED
0123456789

From 1926 to 1930, Chrysler used the FEDCO system, which had numbers and letters. The letters were actually numbers, decoded according to the following guide, which honored leader W.P. Chrysled. Once translated to serial numbers, one must still know what runs belonged to each car.

From 1931 to 1954, Chrysler used mostly all-numeric codes (with some exceptions) that were sequential for given models. Some of these are described in Gerard Wilson's articles (e.g. 1946-48). In 1955, Chrysler started putting more information into their VINs, with 1 being the make (e.g. C = Chrysler), 2 and 3 being the year (e.g. 55 for 1955), and the remainder being a sequential build number. In 1958, Chrysler switched the year to the first letter (it was L), and the second two places were for the car model.

Randy Knox wrote:

I have a 1954 letter from Edgar Kaiser to Kaiser-Willys dealers and distributors, saying that the U.S. Government had requested that the Automobile Manufacturers Association and the auto manufacturers get together and resolve the vehicle ID system problem. ... With the incompatible registration systems, cars were difficult to track between states, as were stolen cars. The letter detailed an agreement to be implemented by all U.S. manufacturers in 1955, including a manufacturer-specific standardized numbering system within the guidelines (to be called the "Vehicle Identification Number") and, to aid the police on stolen vehicles, stamping that VIN in several places on the frame, shown in Edgar’s letter. This new-for-1955 VIN is still evolving!

1959-65

The modern age for Chrysler VINs began in 1959. The first digit was the model year - M for 1959; the second was the brand; the third was the series; and the fourth was the assembly plant, finally making its way into the VIN. The next five digits were the build number, again sequential, so that car 100001 was the first car made. (It would take decades for the company to stop using sequential numbers).

VINs were stamped onto a metal plate which is attached either just under the windshield on the driver’s side (so it’s visible through the windshield), or on the driver’s door body hinge post.

1959: Plymouth, DeSoto, Dodge, Chrysler, Imperial

For 1959 only in this series, “M” was the first digit for the model year, followed by the brand (1 = Plymouth Six, 2 = Plymouth V8, 3 = Dodge, 4 = DeSoto, 5 = Chrysler, 6 = Imperial, 7 = Dodge Canada). The third digit was the series (see below) and the fourth digit was the plant, using the codes shown in 1960-65; the rest were the sequence number. This setup might have been car-only.

0 = Coronet Six
1 = Coronet V8, Firesweep, Windsor, Imperial
3 = Savoy, Royal, Firedome, Saratoga, Crown, Regent (Canada)
5 = Belvedere, Custom Royal, Fireflite, New Yorker, LeBaron, Mayfair (Canada)
6 = Fury, Dodge/DeSoto 6 Taxi, Viscount (Canada)
7 = Suburban (Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto, and Chrysler wagon)
8 = Plymouth Taxi, Dodge/DeSoto V8 taxi
9 = Sport Fury, D500, DeSoto Adventurer, Chrysler 300

For 1959, plant codes were somewhat different from 1960-65: 1 = Jefferson Ave, 2 = Dodge Main, 3 = Evansville, 4 = Los Angeles, 5 = Newark, 6 = Lynch Road, 7 = Imperial, 8 = St. Louis

1960-1965 Series and VINs

The car lines spread out in 1965. We'll break out 1960-64 from 1965 later. This setup might have been car-only.

12345-10
Car Line, 1960-64**SeriesYearPlantIdentifier
1 - Valiant
2 - Plymouth Six
3- Plymouth 8
4- Dodge 6
5- Dodge V8*
6 - Varies, see*
7 - Varies, see*
8 - Chrysler
9 - Imperial
L - Dart V8

See guide below

Last digit
of model
year

1 - Lynch Road (Detroit)
2 - Dodge Main (Hamtramck)
3 - Jefferson Ave (Detroit)
4 - Belvidere (IL)
5 - Los Angeles
6 - Newark (DE)
7 - St. Louis (MO)
8 - Clairpointe (MO)
9 - Windsor (Ontario)

Sequential
numbers


This series basically follows the pattern of 1 = Low, 2 = Medium, 3 = High, 4 = Premium; 5 = Low Station Wagon, 6 = Medium Station Wagon, 7 = High Station Wagon; 8 = Taxi, 9 = Police, 0 = Fleet/Special.

* for 1963-64, 5 = Dodge 880. 6 = Matadora/Polara (1960), DeSoto (1961), Dodge 880 (1962), Dodge V8 (1963-64). 7=DeSoto (1960), Lancer (1961-62), Dart 6 (1963-64).

** 1965: 1 = Valiant 6. V = Valiant 273. 2 = Dart 6. L = Dart V8. 3,4,5 = Plymouth Six. P,R,W = Plymouth 8. D=Dodge, C=Chrysler, Y=Imperial

  1. Valiant V100, Lancer/Dart 170, Belvedere I, Coronet Deluxe, 330, 880, Savoy, Polara, Newport, Custom, Seneca, Matador, Savoy, Windsor, Crown, LeBaron
  2. Belvedere, 440, Coronet, Dart 330, 300 “non-letter”, Crown, Pioneer, Saratoga
  3. Valiant V200, Lancer 770, New Yorker, LeBaron, Dart 270, Belvedere II, Coronet 440, Fury, Polara, Phoenix
  4. Signet, Barracuda, Polara 500, Lancer GT, 300H, Dart GT, Satellite, Coronet 500, Sport Fury, 300 letter cars
  5. Wagons: Valiant V100, Dart 170, Lancer 170, Town & Country, 880, Belvedere I, Coronet, Savoy, 330, Seneca, Matador, Windsor
  6. Pioneer, Belvedere, and Dart 330 Wagons
  7. Wagons: Valiant V200, Lancer 770, New Yorker Town & Country, Suburban, Dart 270, Belvedere II, Coronet 440, Fury, Polara
  8. Taxi
  9. Police
    0 = (1962) Fleet, (1963) Fleet, 880, or 300 Pace Setter, (1964-65) Belvedere and Coronet Super Stock

1966-67 Chrysler Corporation VIN decoding (with Dodge and Plymouth cars)

We’re missing Chrysler and Imperial from the following (that’s probably obvious). This setup might have been car-only.

123-45678-13
Car LineSeriesBodyEngineModel Year PlantSerial Number
  • B - Barracuda
  • L - Dart
  • R - Belvedere, Satellite
  • V - Valiant
  • W - Coronet
  • X - Charger

See below

See
1968-1980
body codes

See
1968-1980
engine codes

6 = 1966
7 = 1967

See 1964-65
except
8 = Export
 

Series:

  • E: Belvedere or Coronet fleet
  • L: Valiant 100, Dart 170, Belvedere I, Coronet Deluxe
  • H: Valiant 200 and Signet; Dart 270; Belvedere II; Coronet 440; Barracuda
  • K: Police Belvedere or Coronet; Super Stock Belvedere II or Coronet 440
  • P: Barracuda, Charger, Coronet 500, Dart GT, Satellite
  • S: GTX, Coronet R/T
  • T: Belvedere or Coronet taxi

1968-1980 VINS (13 characters): Chrysler and AMC

The year position is a single digit, so “0” means both 1970 and 1980 (as an example). The first seven digits are meaningful; the last 6 are just a serial number. This setup was almost certainly car-only — not applicable to trucks.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Car LinePrice ClassDoorsBodyEngineYearPlant
  • B - Caravelle, Barracuda
  • C - Newport, 300, NY'er, Chrysler
  • D - Polara, Monaco, Dodge
  • E - St. Regis
  • F - LeBaron
  • G - Diplomat
  • H - Volare
  • J - Challenger
  • L - Dart
  • N - Aspen
  • P - Fury
  • R - Belvedere, Satellite, Fury ('76)
  • S - Cordoba
  • T - Newport/New Yorker
  • - Valiant, Duster
  • W - Coronet, 1971+ Charger
  • X - Magnum or Charger
  • Y - Imperial

E - Economy
G -
H - High
K - Police
L -
Low
M - Medium
N - NYC taxi
P
- Premium
S - Special
T - Taxi
O - Super Stock
X - Fast Top

2 or 4

First digit is the
number of doors
(2 or 4)


1
- sedan
2 - B-pillared hardtop
3 - hardtop
4
- hatchback
5
- 2-seat wagon
6 - 3-seat wagon
7 - convertible
9
- coupe / special

(See list)

Last
digit
of
year

A - Lynch Road
B - Hamtramck
C - Jefferson
D - Belvidere
E - Los Angeles
F - Newark
G - St. Louis
H - New Stanton
P - Wyoming (Export)
R - Windsor

1981-2009

Post-1980 Mopar VINs had 17 characters (the change was made to conform to Federal law). The 12th-17th numbers are a unique, nonsequential code. These applied to trucks as well as cars.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Country Brand Type of Car Safety System/GVWR** Car Line Series Body Engine “Check Digit” Model Year Plant
Country of origin:
  • 1 - United States
  • 2 - Canada
  • 3 - Mexico
  • J - Japan
  • Z - Italy
  • 4 - DSM and NUMMI (US Joint Venture)

Brand:

  • B - Dodge
  • D - Dodge
  • C - Chrysler / Lancia
  • P - Plymouth
  • A - Imperial
  • E - Eagle
  • J - Jeep

Type of car:

  • 2 - Passenger Car
  • 3 - Side Airbags (in some years, truck with side airbags)
  • 4 - MPV (including SUVs)
  • 5 - Bus
  • 6, W - Incomplete (e.g. chassis cab)
  • 7 - Truck without Side Air Bags
  • 8 - MPV with Side Air Bags
  • 9 - MPV

Safety System / Gross Vehicle Weight:

  • A - Active Front and Side Airbag (or Auto Belts, or Dual Airbag)
  • B - Manual Seat Belts (after 2000: active belts with side airbags in front)
  • C - Auto Seat Belt (after 2000: active belts with side airbags, all rows)
  • D - Active belts, no airbags
  • X - Driver’s Side Airbag with Manual Seat Belt
  • Y - Passenger Side Airbag
  • G - Dual Airbags
  • H - Dual Airbags with Automatic Belts
  • J - Restraint System Air Bags
  • D thru M: Truck Weight Classes
  • D - up to 3,000 lb
  • E - Car, Side Airbags; Truck, 3,001 to 4,000
  • F - 4,001 to 5,000
    and in 1,000 increments until
  • M - 10,001 to 14,000 lb
  • W - Buses / chassis cabs
 

Car line:

  • A - Daytona, Wrangler 4x4, Chassis Cab 4x2 (class 4/5), Chrysler 300 RWD
  • B - Gran Fury, Caravelle, Durango 4x4, Wrangler 4x2, Ram 1500 4x2
  • C - Dynasty, New Yorker, LeBaron
  • D - Aries, Durango 4x2
  • E - 600, Dakota 4x2, Wranlger RHD
  • F - Fifth Avenue, Newport; Chassis Cab 4x2
  • H - (Plymouth) Voyager Wagon, LeBaron GTS
  • J - Caravelle (U.S.), LeBaron, Stratus/Cirrus
  • K - Caravan, 300 AWD
  • L - Caravelle (Canada), Sebring, Thema
  • M - Horizon; Ram Heavy Duty 4x2
  • N - Liberty/Cherokee 4x4
  • P - FWD minivans, Reliant, Aries; Ram HD 4x2; Liberty 4x2
  • R - Grand Cherokee 4x4
  • S - Sundance, Shadow, Neon LHD, Grand Cherokee 4x2
  • T - AWD minivans, 1987 New Yorker, Nitro 4x2; Ram 4x4
  • U - Nitro 4x4; Chassis Cab 4x4 (class 4/5)
  • V - Neon RHD, LX/LC series, Ram 1500 4x4
  • W - Dakota 4x4
  • X - Lancer
  • Y - Imperial, 5th Avenue; Ram HD 4x4
  • Z - Omni, Wrangler RHD 4x4, Chassis Cab 4x4
  • 2 - Grand Cherokee RHD 4x4
  • 4 - Cherokee RHD (4x4)
  • 9 - Nitro RHD

Series/Price class:***

  • 1 - Economy / Ram 1500
  • 2 - Low / Base (Ram Class 2)
  • 3 - Medium (Ram: Class 3, single wheels)
  • 4 - High (Ram: Class 3, dual rear wheels)
  • 5 - Premium
  • 6 - Special/Sport (Ram: reg cab)
  • 7 - Performance/Image
  • 8 - Hybrid (Ram: Quad cab)
  • 9 - Special/Sport

Body Types:

  • 0 - Extended Wheelbase Wagon (e.g. Grand Caravan)
  • 1 - Regular Wagon (e.g. Caravan)
  • 2 - Club Cab
  • 3 - Van
  • 4 - Long Wheelbase
  • 5 - Short Wheelbase, Convertible
  • 6 - 4-Door Sedan
  • 8 - Sport Utility 4-door
  • C - Crew Cab truck or 4 door sedan, tall (LX)
  • D - Open Body (Wrangler)
  • E - Regular Cab truck
  • G - 4-door SUV/ Quad Cab
  • H - Extended Open Body (W. Unlimited) or Mega Cab Pickup
 

Model Year:

  • B - 1981
  • C - 1982
  • etc., I and O are skipped
  • Y - 1990
  • 1 - 1991
  • etc., until
  • A - 2010 (and so on)

Plant

  • A - Lynch Road
  • B - Hamtramck*
  • C - Jefferson Ave
  • D - Belvedere
  • E - Los Angeles
          or Bloomington
  • F - Newark (DE)
  • G - St. Louis #1 or        Saltillo, MX
  • H - Bramalea*
  • J - St. Louis North
  • K - Pillette Rd
  • L - Toledo South
  • M - Lago MX
  • N - Sterling Heights
  • P - Wyoming*
  • R - Windsor
  • S - Warren
  • T - Toluca #1
  • U - Eurostar
  • V - Toluca #2
  • W - Kenosha #1
    or Toledo North
  • X - St. Louis #2
  • Y - Kenosha #2

* Hamtramck = Dodge Main. Wyoming = Export. New Stanton was sold to Volkswagen the early 1970s and Bramalea was acquired with AMC in 1987 (renamed Brampton in 1992); Los Angeles was closed and Bloomington added. See all factories.

**GVWR = Gross Vehicle Weight Rating

*** Series for Wrangler: 2 = Base and Sport; 3 = Unlimited Sport; 5 = Sahara; 6 = Rubicon.
For Nitro, 2 = SE, 4 = Heat, 5 = SXT, 6 = Detonator, 7 = Shock; 2 and 5 include exports.
For Liberty, 2 = Sport, 3 = Renegade, 5 = Limited; for Grand Cherokee, 4 = Laredo, 5 = Ltd, 6 = Overland, 7 = SRT
for LX cars: 3 = Limited/SXT, 4 = LX/D/E/, 5 = Touring/R/T, 6 = 300C, 7 = SRT8

To protect the consumer from theft and possible fraud the manufacturer is required to include a "check digit" at the ninth position of the VIN. The check digit is used by the manufacturer and government agencies to verify the authenticity of the vehicle and official documentation. The formula to use the check digit is not released to the general public.

2009 and onwards

1234567891011
CountryBrandTypeGVWR or SafetyCar LineSeriesBody StyleEngine“Check Digit”Model YearPlant

* Brand = Assembler ... Type: Jeep JK=4. .

Type:

NHTSA required vehicles made after April 29, 2009, to use slightly different VINs. The manufacturer space moved; and the year required two spots (in vehicles with a gross weight rating below 10,001 lb). If position 7 is numeric, the model year (in position 10) is a year in 1980-2009; in position 7 is a letter, then position 10 is a year from 2010-2039. For higher-capacity vehicles, along with motorcycles, trailers, and low-speed vehicles, the year code is simply repeated in position 10. Plant and engine codes appear to continue.

2012 and onwards

oh2o wrote, “There was a VIN structure change starting with the 2012 model year because the first three characters of the VIN were being overwhelmed by detail (the first 3 characters of the VIN are really meant to identify the manufacturer). Because of this, the world was rapidly running out of available combinations for the first three characters. To fix the problem, the additional detail is now being included in VIN positions 5-7, which are controlled internally by each manufacturer.

1234567891011
CountryBrandTypeGVWR or SafetyCar LineSeriesStyle/LevelEngine“Check Digit”Model YearPlant

Example: 2C3CLAAG1CH100456 = Canada, Chrysler, Passenger-Car; C = Active belts, front airbags, side airbags for all rows; L = Lancia; A = "Marketing Name;" A = Touring; G = Pentastar V6; 1=check digit; C = 2012; H = Bramalea.

Engine types

A
    (1966-69) 170 slant six
    (1978-82) VW 1.7 four
    (1983-86) SIMCA/Peugeot 1.6 liter four
    (1987-89) 2.2 Turbo II
    (1991-93) 2.2 Turbo III
B
    (1966-1969) 225 slant six single-barrel
    (1970-74) 198 slant six
    (1981-82) 2.2 liter (carb)
    (1983) VW 1.7 liter
    (2005) 2.4 L 4 cyl. 16V DOHC (MPI)
    (1980+) AMC 2.5 liter four-cylinder
C
    (1968-69) Slant 6 special order
    (1970-80) 225, 1 bbl slant six
    (1983-87) 2.2 (carbureted)
    (1990) 2.2 Turbo IV (VNT)
    (2005) 2.0 L 4 Cyl. 16V SOHC
   (2006-?) 5.9 Cummins diesel H.O.
    (1980+) AMC 4.0 liter straight-six
D
    (1968-69) 273 V8
    (1977-1979) 225, 2 bbl slant six, high performance
    (1981-1982) Mitsubishi 2.6 liter (93 hp)
    (1985-1994) 2.2 EFI
    
(2005-06) 5.7 L 8 cyl. SMPI
    
(2010) 2.7 V6 (EER)
E
    
(1966) 318-2
    (1967) 273-4
    (1970-1980) Special order slant six
    (1981-1982) 225-1
    (1984-1988) 2.2 T1
    (1992-?) 488 V10
    
(2005) 3.3L V6
F
    
(1966) 361, 2 or 4 barrel
    (1967-69) 318 two-barrel
    (1981-1982) 225 slant six, high performance
    
(1984-1986) 2.2 - 2HP
    (1993-?) 3.5
G
    (1966-69) 383 V8 two-barrel
    (1970-1980) 318, 2 bbl V8, standard
    (1981-1982) 225 slant six, heavy duty
    (1983) 2.6, two-barrel
    (1998-2001) 3.5L V6
    
(1990-2005) 3.3 L 6 cyl ethanol flexible fuel MPI
    
(2005) 3.5 L V6 High Output 24V MPI
    
(2010+) 3.6 Pentastar V6 (ERB)
    (1977-79) AMC 2.0 liter four-cylinder
H
    
(1966) 426 Hemi
    (1967-69) 383 4-barrel
    (1970-1973) 340 V8, high performance
    (1978-1980) 318, 4 bbl V8
    (1981-1982) 225 slant six, heavy duty
    (1983) 225 slant six, standard
    
(2005) 8.3 L 10 cyl. SFI
J

    (1966) 440
    (1967-69) 426 Hemi
    (1970-1971) 340 V8, triple two-barrel carbs
    (1974-1979) 360, 4 bbl V8
    (1981-1982) 318 V8, fuel injection
    (1983) 225 slant six, heavy duty
    (1989-1991) 2.5 T1
    (1998-2001) 3.2 liter V6
    
(2005) 4.7 L 8 cyl. MPI High Output
K
    
(1966) Special Order V8
    (1967-1969) 440, four-barrel
    (1971-1980) 360, 2 bbl V8, standard
    (1981-1982) 318 V8, 2 bbl carb, standard
   
 (1983) 225, two-barrel
    
(1986-1995) 2.5 liter four cylinder
    
(2004) 3.9 L 6 cyl. MPI
    
(2005-2012) 3.7 L 6 cyl. MPI

 

L
    (1967-69) 440 four-barrel (high performance)
    (1970-71) 383 V8, standard
    (1974-1978) 360, 4 bbl V8, high performance
    (1981-1982) 318 V8, 2 bbl carb, heavy duty
    (1990-2005) 3.8 V6
    (2010?+) 6.7 Cummins diesel
M
    
(1967) Special Order V8
    (1969) 440-6
    (1972-1976) 400 V8, standard
    (1981-1982) 318 V8, 4 bbl carb, standard
    (2011+) 3.0 VM Motori V6 Diesel EXF
N
    (1970-71) 383 V8, high performance
    (1974-1978) 400 V8, 4 bbl carb
    (1981-1982) 318 V8, 4 bbl carb, heavy duty
    
(2004-2006) 4.7 L 8 cyl. MPI
P
    (1968-69) 340 V8 four-barrel (high performance)
    (1972-1973) 400, four-barrel
    (1974-1978) 400 V8, high performance
    (1983-1989) 318 V8, 2 bbl carb
    (2008?+) 4.7 V8

R
    (1970-71) 426, "Hemi" V8
    (1983-1987) 318 V8, 4 bbl carb
    (1989-1990)TC only5th digit (DOHC Maserati head, 2.2 T
    (1990-?) DSM Eclipse/Talon only, 2.0
    (1990-2005) 3.3 V6
    
(1998-2010) 2.7 liter V6
    
(2005) 2.7 L 6 cyl. 24V DOHC
S
    (1983-1989) 318 V8, 4 bbl carb, heavy duty
    (1989) 318 V8, standard
    (1990-1991) TC Code only (Mitsu 3.0)
    (2005) 2.4 L 4 cyl. 16V DOHC Turbo
T
    (1970-1977) 440 V8, standard
    
(1990-?) 2.0, DSM Eclipse only
    (1993-?) 3.3 V6
    (2005) 2.7 L 6 cyl. 24V DOHC FFV
    (2010+) 5.7 liter V8 (car and truck)
U
    (1970-1977) 440 V8, high performance
    (1990-?) 2.0 T, DSM Eclipse/Talon only
    (1990-?) 3.0
    (2000-2010) 2.7 liter V6
V
    (1970-72) 440 V8 "Six-pack"
    (2000-2009) 2.7 liter V6
    
(2010) 3.5 liter V6
W
    
(2005-2010) 6.1 L V8
    
(2006) 8-liter truck V10
X
    
(1987) 2.2 LPG
    (2005) 2.4 L 4 cyl. 16V DOHC
    
(200?) 4.0 V6
Y

    (2005) 2.0 L 4 cyl. DOHC
Z
    (1970-1978) Special order V8
    (1987) 318 V8
    
(AMC/Jeep) 401 V8
    
(2006) 5.9 Cummins diesel
1
    3.8 V6 (EGT)
3
    (1989-?) 3.0 Mitsubishi V6
4
    (1984-1989) 318 V8, heavy duty
5
    2.8L 4 cyl. Turbo Diesel

6
      
5.9 liter Cummins diesel
7
    (1980s) 318 LPG
    2.5 L 4 cyl. 16V Turbo Diesel
8
    (1984-1986) 2.2 carb high output

 

AMC-Jeep Engine Types

B
    (1981) 2.5 Pontiac 2.1 diesel
    (1985-1987) 2.1 diesel
C
   (1981-1988) 258 AMC
E
    
(1989-1990) 2.5 EFI AMC, unleaded gas
F
    
(1981-1983) 145 diesel
G
   (1989-1990) 2.5 EFI AMC, leaded gas
H
    
(1981-1983) 304 AMC
    (1986-1988) 2.5 EFI AMC

 

L
    (1981-1983) 232 AMC
    (1989-1990) 4.0 EFI AMC, unleaded gas
M
    
(1987-1988) 4.0 EFI AMC
    (1989-1990) 258 AMC, low compression
N
    (1981-1988) 360 AMC
P
    (1991-?) 2.5 EFI AMC
S
    (1991-?) 4.0 EFI AMC
T
    (1989-1990) 258 AMC

1982-2004 automated Chrysler VIN Decoder

VIN:

VIN Decoded:


Odd results? Remember, I don't do trucks, SUVs, or minivans!

See the AMC VIN decoding page.

We are not responsible for the consequences of actions taken based on this site, and make no guarantees regarding validity, accuracy, or applicability of information, predictions, or advice of any sort. Please read the terms of use and privacy policy. Copyright © 1994-2000, David Zatz; copyright © 2001-2014, Allpar LLC (except as noted, and press/publicity materials); all rights reserved. Dodge, Jeep, Chrysler, Ram, Plymouth, and Mopar are trademarks of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.