I just realized: isn’t the bigger question on whether both Peugeot and Fiat can even survive? Reason being the upcoming tough emission laws In Europe. Maybe someone from Europe or someone with more knowledge can chime in. I just read that if BMW doesn’t sell any EVs in 2020 its fine could reach a billion euros. VW is obviously not betting the farm without a reason. I read the average fleet mileage has to be 4.1 l/100km (57 mpg) for gasoline and 3.6 l/100km (65 mpg) for diesel (estimates for getting to the required CO2 numbers). For BMW to not pay fines it is estimated for them to have to sell 93k EVs in 2020. 2021 will be even tougher. I realize that BMW sells a lot more larger cars and that it should be easier for PSA and FCA. But how close is their fleet average? Or will the EU ease up when they realize these companies will not be able to make it? Could one outcome be that only VW group, maybe MB and of course Tesla and some unknowns will be selling cars in Europe 5 years from now? Not even sure what these means for the Japanese automakers selling cars over there. I guess Hyundai has a decent chance. Toyota has its hybrids. I have been to Germany the past few years and seen how Fiat’s model line has been falling behind and it is no secret that most profits are coming from the US. Merging with Renault or PSA seemed to make sense to have a relevant presence in Europe. But with these upcoming emissions laws could more European presence be an even greater liability? First you have to have the EV models, then you need to be able to make them in decent numbers and then have consumers ready to accept them. Which means you have to have an infrastructure to charge them. Does Europe have a plan that I just don’t get or know about?