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      Willem Weertman and Chrysler Engines 1922-1998

      Willem L. (Bill) Weertman spent 40 years with Chrysler Corporation. He was responsible for all new engines for the corporation's front-wheel drive vehicles and for adapting and testing engines from outside companies. He led the design efforts for the LA V-8 engine series, the 426 Hemi® engines, and a new six-cylinder engine for Australia.

      The ultimate Mopar holiday gift has just been introduced - by the Society of Automotive Engineers. It's Willem Weertman's long-awaited book, Chrysler Engines, 1922-1998, and it's about what you would expect from the company's chief engine designer - the man in charge when the slant six, Hemi V8, and 2.2 liter engines were created.

      The book is intensive in detail, discussing little-known aspects of every engine built by Chrysler (for car use) during the long time span from the company's creation through to 1998. Weertman tells the inside story not only of the engines he was involved with, but also of the earliest engines used by Chrysler, even those not sold in Chryslers - the original engines from the cars that predated the company.

      Chrysler Historical threw open its collection for Weertman, not surprisingly, since the book sprang out of an internal project which was to discuss the company's engines and cars, as an educational piece for the new owners. As a result, the book is filled with rare photos, diagrams, and specifications, the like of which have never been seen in one place. Many of the diagrams have been greatly enhanced, so unlike the average car book where many pictures are less than the original, in Chrysler Engines 1922-1998, they are better. Photographs appear to have been digitally enhanced, so the black and white photography is also far more clear than we are used to. The two-column layout is clear and easy to read; and tables abound with specific details, in some cases year by year. Weertman also covers the cars the engines went into, goes into critical reviews and racing results, and in essence provides an almost complete story.

      Every engine gets full attention in this book, unlike many others (including, for example, The Ultimate American V-8 Engine Data Book). That means development history, charts, diagrams, and photos. The largest share of attention seems to go into the first three Chrysler engines, with huge diagrams and cross sections carefully reconstructed so they are very clear and easy to see; but everything is covered. Weertman also goes over alternative choices - engines that were considered but not made, such as a V-6 based on the 318 (rejected for the Australian Valiant), and the aluminum-head slant six. The 2.2 liter and 2.5 liter engines get attention that is normally lacking, and even the foreign engines, including the Volkswagen 1.7 liter motor for the Rabbit, are covered to a degree (including cutaway diagrams, specifications, and photos of the cars it went into). Dodge Brothers engines, from the time the company was acquired, are also covered, as are AMC engines at the time of the acquisition (selected prior engines are discussed briefly). Not included were engines from cars that were actually engineered and built by other companies and sold with the Dodge labels (e.g. Mitsubishi Colt), diesels or gasoline engines purchased for use in Dodge trucks, or alternative-fuel engines other than the turbines; most experimental engines are also not covered, though, again, some are mentioned in passing and some are covered fairly well.

      There are special sections for the military engines developed and built by Chrysler during World War II (mainly for tanks and aviation), for truck engines, for boats, and for the turbines. For every engine, specifications include bore spacing, number of main bearings, valve operation, and other details; often, horsepower and torque ratings are listed by year. The photos and detail on marine engines is welcome since this is an area where information tends to be hard to find; aviation engines used in World War II are also discussed, and in both cases, photos and diagrams are plentiful and high quality.

      Willem Weertman - not surprisingly for a long-time Chrysler engineer wrote clearly, with craftsmanship, and is easy to understand. His language and fact base are exacting, as one would expect from him but not from many writers. One can feel confident that he got his facts right.

      Chrysler Engines 1922-1998 has perhaps one fault; it generally does not mention any possible drawbacks or compromises in design of engines that were actually produced, and many interesting or colorful aspects of engine development revealed by other engineers of the company are skipped in favor of a more direct, purposeful, descriptive, but above all else 100% positive coverage. He does mention in passing items like the origin of the V-10 truck engine (a call from Bob Lutz asking if the 360 could have two cylinders added; its feasibility was shown on computer and then checked with a test engine), and provides the kind of looks at discussions of engine design that only an insider has access to.

      That said, this book - measuring 381 pages plus appendices - is an invaluable resource that will provide Mopar fans and owners with a huge amount of knowledge they have probably never encountered before. As we write this, in early December, it seems like a good time to mention that for $75, you'll be hard pressed to find a better, more engaging present for the Mopar fan in your life - and personally, I think we can buy presents for ourselves!

      Available from the Society of Automotive Engineers. You can read the interview first (or after you order the book!)

      All reviews at allpar (including competitors)Past reviews


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      Mopar (Chrysler, Dodge, Plymouth, Jeep, etc.) Engines

      #8
      Quick-find guide:


      Currently made or future engines

      <a name="8"></a>Eight or Ten Cylinders

      Hemi engines




      The other V8s (in decreasing size)

      #8
      LA V8 engines (273, 318/5.2, 340, 360/5.9)
      <a name="6"></a>Six Cylinders

      V6 engines


      LH family:

      2.7 - advanced little 1990s V6
      3.2 - midrange LH engine, 1990s
      3.3 workhorse V6, 1990-2010
      3.5 V6 - top Chrysler V6 in the 1990s, 2000s
      3.8 V6 - stroked 3.3, 1991 to 2011
      4.0 V-6 - stroked 3.5, 2007 through 2011

      Truck engines:

      3.9 truck engine, derived from the 318/360

      And...

      Straight-six engines

      GME straight-six - Tornado?
      4.2 and 4.0 I-6 - Highly competitive AMC/Jeep engines
      Flat-head engines (pre-1960s)
      - In an airport tug
      - 230 cid L6 flat-head
      <a name="4"></a>Four Cylinders

      In rough chronological order


      <a name="diesel"></a>

      Diesels
      Alternative engines and fuels
      <a name="repair"></a>Repairs and such

      Designing Valiant axles: the 7 1/4 axle comes to life

      <a name="general"></a>General Engine Information
      <a name="FCA"></a>FCA
      Books

      * Allpar is not affiliated with Chrysler, owner of the Mopar trademark.

      Where does Chrysler get its engine names from? In recent years:

      F-15 Eagle = 5.7 V8
      Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat = 6.2 V8
      AH-64 Apache = 6.4 V8
      F-20 Tigershark = 2.0L and 2.4L I-4
      WC-135 Phoenix = Original name for Pentastar 3.2L and 3.6L
      Hawker Hurricane (UK) = Upcoming GME turbo four
      Panavia Tornado PA200, GR4, MRCA (UK) = Upcoming GME straight-six
      Fairey Firefly (UK) = GSE four cylinders (Fiat)

      Mopar (Chrysler, Plymouth, Dodge, etc) engines, past and future.


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      The 400 V8: Final Mopar Big Block Engine

      The first B engine was launched in the 1958 model year, in 350 and 361 cubic inch versions. Similar in some ways to the existing Hemi V8 engines, the B series used wedge-shaped heads to slash costs, weight, and engine size. Though conventional in design, the pushrod V8s were capable of high performance, and garnered a reputation for durability.



      For years, the largest "B" engine was the 383 cubic inch V8. The company created a raised block with the 1959 cars; the new "RB series" would go up to 440 cubic inches. The numerous engine sizes raised costs a bit, so Chrysler started working to standardize all the big block engines on a 4.32" bore (according to racer and historian Rick Ehrenberg). Using that bore with the 383's existing stroke would have brought a displacement of 396 cubic inches, but the marketing people felt 400 sounded better - and that's what they got, though it meant using a bore of 4.34", which some would say defeated the purpose.

      1972

      Carburetor
      Net Horsepower
      Torque (lb-ft)
      360
      4-barrel175 @ 4,000
      285 @ 2,400
      4002-barrel[email protected] 3600
      310 @ 3200
      4404-bbl
      225 @ 4,800345 @ 3200

      This was the largest B engine ever made; the stroke was the same as the other B engines (383, 361, and 350), but the bore was larger than any B or RB engine. Compression was 8.2:1, lower than optimal so they could reduce emissions.

      Despite its size, the 400 has often been dismissed as a low-powered "smog engine." It was basically an over-bored 383 with an 8.2:1 ratio for emissions and mildly longer cam timing events and higher lift (on the four-barrel version). However, as "CBody67" pointed out, the engine was always rated with net horsepower; many were confused by the move from gross to net, which dropped ratings by up to 50 hp. It didn't help that the first-year 400s all had two-barrel carburetors.

      In the 1971 cars, the 400 V8 used the Ball & Ball (later Carter) BBD downdraft, with a 1 5/16" venturi and 1 9/16" bore. For the 1972 cars, they used the Holley 2210 two-barrel. The huge displacement, topped by a two-barrel, gave the 400 somewhat less of a reputation than it may have deserved, but it was generally just about 25 horsepower less than a similarly equipped 440.

      In its first year, the idle speed was set to a fairly low 700 rpm; the fast idle speed, at 1,700 rpm. The automatic choke was controlled by a thermostatic coil spring, and defaulted to two notches rich. Ignition was via distributor and points at first (the points replaced by electronic ignition within two years); plugs were Champion J-11Y, gapped to the usual 0.35".

      1974 horsepower400
      440
      2-barrel185 @ 4,000
      4-barrel205 @ 4,000230 @ 4,000
      4-barrel HP250 @ 4,800275 @ 4,400
      Police240 @ 4,800275 @ 4,400

      The camshaft intake valve duration was 260°; the exhaust duration was 268°; and the overlap was 38°. As with all Chrysler engines of the time, it used a timing chain; and to ease maintenance, tappets were hydraulic and self-adjusting. Valves were 2.08" (intake) and 1.75" (exhaust; sometimes reported as 1.74"). The crankshaft was fully counter-balanced. A later 400 High Performance engine used a cam with 268°/284°/46° (the crank on these was still forged steel, though the standard 400 used cast ductile iron).

      CIDBoreStroke
      3834.033.375
      4004.3423.375
      4404.323.75

      The engine had a traditional rotary full pressure oil pump, driven by the camshaft; it had a two-plane intake manifold. To the very end of production, the 400 four-barrels all had roller timing chains, windage trays, chrome moly rings, better bearings, and some other performance/durability features which had begun with the Road Runner 383. They were still used by many law enforcement agencies, which needed high speed durability and reliability.

      Electronic ignition was optional at first, but many dealers ordered it; then it was standard in the 1973 cars. As with all electronic-ignition Mopars of the day, the ballast resistor could fail without warning, leaving the car un-startable; veterans learned to spend $4 on a spare and kept it in the glove compartment, since the swap could be made easily at a parking space or road shoulder.

      The 1973 cars were also the first to get induction-hardened exhaust valve seats, so they could use unleaded gasoline when the supply of leaded fuel ended, around ten years later. The seats were heated to 1,700°F and then allowed to air-cool, hardening the surfaces to a depth of .05" to .08".

      1976horsepower
      torque
      2-barrel175300
      4-barrel Lean Burn210305
      4-barrel HP240325

      Note: for 1976, the only California-legal 400 was a four-barrel with 185 hp and 285 lb-ft.

      Police and high performance versions used higher rate valve springs and surge dampers to prevent valve float. Truck versions used shot-peened nodular iron crankshafts for durability (the 440 had forged cranks for trucks and police cars).

      In 1974, the 400 used a Holley R-6737A two-barrel carburetor, with a 1.56" barrel; the 400 "HP" used a Carter Thermoquad four-barrel (1.50 primaries, 2.25 secondaries). This was not the same carburetor as the 440, but it was similar in dimensions and identical in barrel sizes. All the 400 and 440 cubic inch engines used premium fuel at this point, and had 8.2:1 compression. New oval intake snorkels increased engine output slightly on the 1974s by reducing air turbulence.



      From 1973 to 1978, emissions equipment continued to become more complex, as engineers tried to get carburetors to work more efficiently. Tuning chief Pete Hagenbuch asked for fuel injection, but it was rejected due to cost (most likely far less than the cost of extra warranty work and lost customers). Electronic Lean Burn, the world's first computerized spark advance system, helped - but had its own problems, many due to the lack of proper materials, and many owners replaced it. To save money, cast crankshafts started to replace the forged crankshafts of prior years.

      The 1978 cars with 400 cubic inch V-8 engines gained dual concentric throttle return springs in addition to a torsion throttle spring. The 400 was standard on the popular Chrysler Cordobas in most, but not all years.

      The heat valve in the right exhaust manifold diverted hot gases to the floor of the intake manifold which helps to vaporize the fuel mixture when the engine is cold, speeding warm-up; a thermostatic spring reduced gas flow through the intake manifold crossover passage.

      The 1978s also had an adaptor for timing the ignition magnetically; it could still be set by timing lights.

      The last big block Chrysler engine was produced in August 1978; they were still standard in the 1978 Chrysler Newport and New Yorker (the 440 was optional). In this application, the 400 had a four-barrel carburetor, had the same 8.2:1 compression, and was rated at 195 horsepower and 305 pound-feet of torque. It was also listed for sale in Dodge trucks, e.g. as a $72 option for the D100 and D200.

      1972400 cid 90° V8
      Compression 8.2:1
      Min compression100 psi
      Max variation between cylinders40 psi
      Firing order1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2
      Timing2.5° BTC
      Left bank, front to rear1-3-5-7
      PistonsAuthothermic, steel struts
      Piston weight768.5 grams
      Piston pinsPress fit in rod
      Piston rings2 compression, 1 oil
      Connecting rod weight812 grams
      Tuning and other experiences

      From CBody67

      To set the base idle speed, I'd put it in gear, parking brake full on, and adjust the idle speed to just where it became a smooth flow from a flow of individual pulses - then put it in Park and see where the "unloaded" idle speed went to. Then adjust the idle mixture from there, re-tweaking the idle speed in gear.

      If things were right, it would idle smoothly all day with the a/c on in gear. There would be no real hydrocarbon smell on my hand as I checked for the exhaust pulse; it was the lean best idle that worked.

      In this process, the 400 had a much hotter exhaust temperature than the 383; the lower compression motors allegedly had higher heat rejection, which helped cook the emissions. It impressed me was that the factory tune-up specs (on the underhood decal) for ignition timing were stated as + or - 2 degrees - they were enough under the emissions requirements that they had some room to play with.

      Most of the people who replaced the Lean Burn really didn't get the best results; they used an earlier carb with a Direct Connection electronic ignition kit, or replaced the distributor with a remanufactured one, resulting in a car that ran, but not well.

      In the 1976 model year, the 400 HO still had no catalytic converter, with a "Non-Catalyst" sticker on the driver's door.

      The 1978 Chrysler service manual lists converter stall speeds; the "Road Runner 383" converter was the normal 225 Slant Six torque converter, with a higher stall speed behind the more powerful 383. The normal 383 and 440s got the 11.75" converter, as the Road Runner converter was 10.75". The stall speeds quoted for the 1978 HO engines were between 2800-3200 rpm, while many GM converters were rated to 2000 rpm. These "loose" factory converters, coupled with the internal guts for the 400 and 440s, meant that Chrysler was probably the only OEM building true high performance cars with lower compression ratios, doing what they could with longer cam timing specs and such. The exhaust system was still large, too; and when Chrysler did a dual exhaust car, it had two separate converters. GM used one, with a dual outlet exhaust.

      The 400 heads' ports looked a little different and were initially perceived to be lower performance than the 906 castings of 1971 and earlier. Later, when the 906s and the later ones were ported identically, the flows were found to be the same.

      Other articles

      R E L E V A N T B O O K S



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      The RB Engines: 383 - 413 - 426 - 440

      by David Zatz

      Chrysler's first big block V8s were, from the start, designed with a low-deck and raised-deck series - the LB (or B) engines and the RB ("raised-deck B"). Chrysler standardized the stroke of each series: the B-engines had a 3.38-inch stroke and RB engines had a 3.75 inch stroke.



      Thanks to Eddie Hostler, Curtis Redgap, and the Mopar Engines and Chrysler Engines books.

      The first RB engine was the 1959 413 (6.8 liters), launched a year after the first B 350 and 361 came out. The RB engines were shared by all Chrysler brands, but that still left room for variety, as retired plant worker "Superduckie" wrote:

      Just in 1969, the big block V8s had around sixty variations. There were 413s with two-barrel carburetors, for school buses and dump trucks. There were six blocks, five cylinder-head variations, four camshafts, three timing chains, four flywheels, four torque converters, five different oil pans, and many different linkage brackets.
      It was still easier to manage than the bewildering array of earlier Chrysler V8s.

      Engine383413426440
      Bore4.034.184.254.32

      The 413, a high-torque, medium-horsepower powerplant, went into the 1959-65 cars, and 1959-79 trucks. The engine was also sold to high-end European automakers, such as Facel Vega.

      See 413 dyno tests conducted at Chrysler in 1959

      Chrysler carEngine19591960
      Windsor, SaratogaRB - 38347,21952,349
      New Yorker, 300RB - 41317,02520,602
      ImperialRB - 41317,26217,719

      The 413 was quickly adapted to high performance use by racers, including the Pettys, and by Chrysler itself. In its launch year, the 1959 Chrysler 300E used twin four-barrel carburetors to produce 380 brake horsepower at 5000 rpm and 450 lb-ft at 3600 rpm.



      Meanwhile, Chrysler engineers had discovered that intake manifolds could create a supercharging effect; air/fuel coming to the cylinder would hit the closed valve, bounce off, and then return, mixing with the rush of incoming air at a higher density (pressure), pushing more fuel and air into the cylinder and effectively increasing the engine's displacement. The effect was tuned by changing the length of the intake tubes, with 30 inches being "just right" for boosting passing power. That meant a large, heavy intake with two carburetors on opposite sides of the engine from the cylinders they were feeding, and also reduced power at the highest engine speeds.

      Thus, the 1960 Chrysler 300F and 1961 300G had a long-tube ram induction system, boosting power to 495 pound-feet; it remained on the option sheets for Chrysler 300s through the 1964 cars.



      Dodge Ramcharger and Plymouth Super Stock cars could run the 1962 Max Wedge 413, displacing 426 cubic inches; sold for drag racing, it boasted an official 420 bhp at 5,000 rpm. Street legal but not street practical, cars with the same engine booked four class records in 1962 NHRA racing, and made mid-twelve-second quarter-mile runs commonplace. On NASCAR tracks the long-ram setup was less than ideal, since it traded off power at one engine speed band for power in another, and was difficult to tune, due to the huge manifold.


      Engine Specifications: 413 V8 as used in Chrysler 300F
      Bore, Stroke, Compression4.18 x 3.75; 10.1 to 1
      Max. BHP @ RPM375 @ 5,000 (std) or 400 @ 5,200
      Max. Torque @ RPM495 @ 2,800 (std) or 465 @ 3,600
      Firing Order1, 8, 4, 3, 6, 5, 7, 2
      Valve ArrangementOverhead, in-line, hydraulic
      ValvesIntake: 2.08" Exhaust: 1.60", with 0.430" lift; 268° open duration
      Valve Overlap48°: Intake opens 20° before top dead center, exhaust closes 28° after top dead center
      Piston and RingsAluminum alloy pistol with three rings
      CrankshaftDrop forged steel

      The next step was expanding the bore to 4.25 inches, for a 426 cubic inch displacement, debuting on the 1963 cars. Buyers could get high-performing 300J heads or normal-performance 516 heads. The street-tuned 426 Wedge was a conventional four-barrel setup, with performance not far above the similarly outfitted 383.

      The 413 Max Wedge package was replaced by a 426 Max Wedge, sold in Stage II and Stage III versions; these engines, intended for racing, had special blocks, rods, crankshafts, pistons, heads, valves, valve gear, intake manifolds, carburetors and exhaust manifolds. The 426 was rated by Dodge at 415-425 gross horsepower and 470-480 lb-ft of torque; the 413, at 410-420 hp and 460-470 lb-ft.

      The new engines dominated NHRA's Super Stock class and the Stage II motors boosted NASCAR racing wins. Ronnie Cox won Top Stock Eliminator, tying Al Eckstrand's record of the 112 mph quarter-mile trap speed (in 12.4 seconds for Eckstrand, 12.92 for Cox).

      Ads for the 1963 Dodge "Ramcharger" V8 pointed to records set by NHRA campaigners in 1962 (with the 413), with Jim Nelson setting a quarter mile time of 8.59 seconds (AA/D), Dick Ladeen hitting 12.71 seconds (SS/S), and Bill "Maverick" Golden getting to 12.50 seconds (SS/SA). An A/FX record of 12.26 in the Golden

      The 1963 Ramcharger V8s (413 and 426) had numerous performance and reliability features, according to Dodge:

      How do you identify these engines? Just to the right of the distributor is a bit of smooth steel which has a number code stamped in it. The first line has a letter for the year (D = 1968) and the three digits for displacement (e.g. 440). The date - month and day - are on a line below, sometimes with an HP denoting High Performance. If you don't find "tag," try the passenger side of the block, below the distributor, which is where it sits on B engines.

      • New short-ram intake manifold (15 inches rather than 30) to increase power output over at speeds over 4,000 rpm; tappets could be adjusted with the manifold in place
      • Extra large valves (2.08 inches intake)
      • Port areas of each cylinder head around 25% larger than with the standard 413 engines, with stainless steel head gaskets and a special deck structure for better sealing
      • Oversized long-branch exhaust with three inch outlets and cutouts; two-inch diameter twin tailpipes
      • Three-valve fuel pump with high spring load; electric fuel pumps available as an option
      • Forged aluminum pistons with a chrome-plated iron top compression ring; connecting rods were individually magnaflux-inspected.
      • Larger oil galleries, a larger oil intake tube, larger main and rod bearing oil grooves, and a fore-aft swinging oil intake in the sump to assure circulation when the oil moves to the rear of the pan (on hard acceleration).
      • Mechanical lifters for high engine speeds with high strength valvespring retainers and springs. Rocker arms included lock nuts on the lash adjusting screw.
      • Hardened journals and alloy bearings for extra crankshaft capacity; specially balanced drive shaft
      • Special distributor and dual breaker points
      • Heavy duty manual gearbox or optional automatic, set to upshift at 5,600 rpm, with highest maximum overall breakaway ratio (5.39:1) and overall efficiency of any stock automatic.
      • Sure-Grip rear axle and heavy duty rear springs standard with the Ramcharger engine.



      Mopar Action's Rick Ehrenberg answered a reader's question about fuels. He wrote, "Today's 93 "pump" (R+M/2) octane is roughly equal to 97 research octane. This is just barely - just barely - enough for a dead-stock 10:1 iron-head 440 when all is correct and there's no carbon, with 180° antifreeze. If you still have detonation, make sure the TDC mark is accurate, the timing curve (advance rate) is stock, and the antifreeze is not over 180°F; and check to see if the heads have ever been milled or de-carboned. The engine probably needs more octane, a gallon or two of race gas in the tank. Any detonation you can hear is very bad and very destructive. Long term, the best fix is a pair of 440 source aluminum heads with Cometic gaskets." The reader pointed out that the engine was new, and timing was set for full advance, and Rick said that the mechanical timing curve was probably too "fast."

      The A-864 hemi was introduced in 1964 in the "light weight" Plymouth and Dodge models as a race only package, to be replaced by the A-990 hemi in 1965 (also as a race only engine). Meanwhile, the Dodge Ramcharger drivers continued to pile up records with the 426 Wedge, upgraded with larger Carter AFB-3705S carburetors (with .25-inch larger primary bores), larger air horn diameters, new larger primary riser openers in the intake manifold, a higher lift and longer exhaust duration cam, modified combustion chambers and intake valve ports, more durable head gaskets, new fan and drive unit, and optional aluminum front-end package that cut the Ramcharger package weight by nearly 150 pounds.

      In 1966, thanks to the new precision thin-wall casting techniques used to make the 1964 small 273 ci V-8, the RB block could be pushed out to 4.32 inches, providing the 440, the largest V8 ever made by Chrysler. (Ironically, the largest engine overall - the Viper V10 - was based on the little 273's engine family).

      The 440 engine was introduced in 1966, the same year the 426 engine was replaced by the same-displacement, legendary 426 Hemi "elephant engine." A large-bore version of the 413, it was used not only for performance, but also for luxury yachts such as the Imperial. Horsepower was slightly higher than in the 413, but torque leaped up, at 480 lb-ft.

      The high performance 440 was introduced in the 1967 GTX and R/T models (see Super Commando photo below); the company slotted in brand new, better-flowing heads and a more aggressive, hydraulic camshaft. The Magnum and Super Commando (A134) engines produced 375 horsepower, yet were reliable and relatively easy to tune.

      In 1968, the 383 Road Runner and Super Bee models were introduced, starting the biggest performance surge since the early 1960s; they were essentially created by taking the new head and camshaft designs and putting them into the 383.

      In 1969, the first 440-6 barrel engine package was produced with special rods, crankshaft, timing chain, camshaft, valve springs and intake system; it enjoyed a three year run. The three two-barrel carburetors were dubbed a "Six Pack." Midyear, the company added a high-rise Edelbrock manifold (this was cut early in 1970).

      It is worth noting that early 1969 440s had the same connecting rods and crankshaft as in 1968, but heavier connecting rods were introduced around three months into 1969 model-year production; to offset the added weight, a new crankshaft and rebalanced vibration damper and flywheel were used. Mixing and matching these parts results in nasty vibration problems.



      For 1970, strong "Six Pack" connecting rods were added to all 440 high-performance engines. They were used until 1975.

      In 1971, the 440-6 barrel and the Hemi were the last truly high performance cars produced in the era; the year also saw the use of a cast iron 383 crankshaft as a cost saving measure, on automatic-transmission cars.

      On July 4, 1971, four cars with 426 cubic inch versions of the 440 with ported 440 heads were entered in the Daytona Grand National race, and they finished 1-2-3-4.

      1970 3831971 3831970-71 426 Hemi1971 4401971 440+6 1977 440
      Compression ratio9.5:18.5:110.28:9.5:110.3:1
      Horsepower (gross)335 @ 5200300 @ 4,800425 @ 5,000370 @ 4,600385 @ 4,700
      Horsepower (net) 250 @ 4,800350 @ 5,000*305 @ 4,600330 @ 4,700195 @ 3,600
      Torque (gross)425 @ 3400410 @ 3,400490 @ 4,000480 @ 3,200490 @ 3,200
      Torque (net) 325 @ 3,400390 @ 4,000400 @ 3,200410 @ 3,200320 @ 2,000
      Carb4-barrel
      Holley
      4-bbl
      Holley
      Dual 4-barrel
      Carter
      4-barrel
      Carter
      3 x 2bbl
      Holley
      4 barrel
      Intake/exhaust duration268° / 284°268° / 284°284° / 284° 268° / 284°268° / 284°
      Overlap46°46°60°46°46°
      Base transmission3-spd stick3-spd stick3-spd auto3-spd auto4-spd manual3-spd auto
      Gears2.55, 1.49, 1:1 2.45, 1.45, 1:1
      Standard axle ratio 3.23:13.23:13.35:13.23:1



      See the 440 six-barrel (440 Six-Pack) engines

      1972

      Type
      Net Power
      Torque (lb-ft)
      440Base225 @ 4,800345 @ 3200
      440 Dual snorkel230 @ 4,400355 @ 2,800
      440Dual exhaust245 @ 4,400360 @ 3,200
      440High Perf.280 @ 4,800375 @ 3,200
      440Cold Air Pak290 @ 4,800380 @ 3,200
      4403-two barrel330 @ 4,800410 @ 3,600

      The performance aspects of the 'B' and 'RB' engines faded from 1972 on, though not as suddenly as casual observers may expect, because net horsepower ratings were adopted in 1972 as well. This resulted in a substantial drop in rated horsepower as the effects of using an air cleaner, water pump, alternator, muffler, and other "accessories" were included. The company did provide both gross and net numbers for some engines in 1971, providing some perspective. The measurement difference was responsible for a "drop" of 50-65 horsepower.

      There were some drops in power in 1972 as compression was dropped to reduce emissions, a cheap way to meet new pollution standards. The company also switched to a ductile iron crankshaft (at some point from 1972 to 1974), replacing the forged steel crank, to cut costs. Hemi Andersen wrote that changing the crankshaft also meant the need for an eccentric weight in the harmonic balancer, and the addition of a weight to the torque converter. In short, the engine needed to be externally balanced, while the past B and RB engines did not

      By 1977, when Lean Burn system made its appearance on the 440 "for better driveability and overall performance" (until, many would say, the system stopped working), the engine was used for big luxury cars: it was standard on Chrysler New Yorker Brougham and Town & Country, and optional on Chrysler Newport, Plymouth Gran Fury, and Dodge Monaco. Performance was now to be found in the 360 four-barrel equipped F-bodies, not the B bodies.

      The last 'B-RB' engine was produced in August 1978, ending the history of Chrysler Corporation big-block engines - though it took over a year to clear the already-made engines out of stock. The 440 high-performance engine had a slight power boost to 255 hp, but it was only available as an option for B-body patrol cars. The 413 was used in medium- and heavy-duty trucks until 1979, using old stock.

      <a name="383"></a>The two 383 engines

      In 1963, Dodge buyers had a choice of the 383 with a two-barrel carb (305 hp) or a Power Pack version, with a high performance cam, dual-breaker ignition, dual exhausts, and four-barrel carb (330 hp).



      Chrysler also wanted a 383 cubic inch engine, to avoid having a smaller engine than the lesser Dodge. Trenton Engine, at the time, had a line for the B engine and one for the RB; the B line was busy pushing out 383s and 361s, while the RB line was underused, producing just the 413. Chrysler engineers created a 383 engine out of the RB 413 block, with a narrower bore - so there was a large-bore, short-stroke Dodge 383 and a small-bore, long-stroke Chrysler "Golden Lion" 383.

      The 383 RB was only available in 1959 and 1960 on the US-built Chrysler Windsor and Saratoga (thanks, Ian Smale and Bill Watson). In 1961, the plant figured out how to quickly switch from one block to the other, and they dropped the RB 383.

      Mopar B and RB engine parts

      Over 750,000 440 engines have been produced, so parts tend to be available. The RB engine size was stamped on a pad at the left front of the engine adjacent to the front tappet rail. Distributors are at the right front of the engine. Parts replacement information (such as undersize crankshaft) is next to the engine size.

      1961 was the first year for the now-universal closed crankcase ventilation system, then used on all cars sold in California; it used a flexible tube to connect a valve to a carburetor fitting just below the throttle blades. The carburetor would draw the crankcase vapors in, burning them to painlessly eliminate a source of pollution.

      Chrysler wrote this about the 440, in 1978: "The combination of its large displacement, large intake and exhaust valve ports and manifold passages, 4-barrel carburetor and low-restriction exhaust system give the 440 extra power for quick acceleration at all speeds-low, middle, or highway cruising-or for towing large travel trailers. The 440 V-8 features a deep-skirt engine block, rugged cast ductile iron crankshaft and aluminum-on-steel main and connecting-rod bearings for exceptional durability and smooth operation."

      B engines: 350, 361, 383, 400Max Wedge440 Six-Pack



      RB-engine articles by Rick Ehrenberg

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    1. · Premium Member
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      Mopar LA Series V8 Engines: 318, 340, 360, and 273

      by David Zatz

      The LA engines were durable designs with high power capacity, the Chrysler's mainstay V8 for decades - and its only V8 for many years, as well. The first "LA" engine, the 273, appeared in the 1964 cars; the basic design was used in the 2017 Viper V-10.



      Horsepower ratings before 1970 are gross measurements (without accessories). Ratings after 1971 are net, and are lower.

      The LA was based on the company's first low-cost V8s, the A series; but engineers needed to cut the weight, cost, and size of the engines, which dictated wedge heads with in-line valves. Spark plus were moved up, closer to the center of the combustion chamber, so they were above the exhaust manifold and easier to access than in the A and B engines. The wedge heads (first used by Chrysler on the B engines) were far smaller, and lighter, than the old Hemi and polyspherical heads (318s with the poly heads are still often called "wide blocks" though the block itself is about the same size as that of the LA 318).

      A new coring process at Chrysler's block foundry in Indianapolis allowed for thinner walls in the block, shedding fifty pounds and justifying the code LA ("Lightweight A"). The A-engine tappet bore machining was preserved to cut tooling expenses; the stroke was kept for most of the LA engines, too. In the end, it was far cheaper and faster to build than older Chrysler V8s, but no less durable - and, more efficient than the pricey polyspherical-head engines had been.

      Thanks to Bill Watson, Joshua Skinner, Dan Stern,
      Steven Havens, Jim Forbes, and Peter Duncan. Other information was provided by Willem Weertman's
      Chrysler Engines book.

      The 273 carried over the A engines' crankshaft, bearings, bearing caps, vibration damper, and timing chain, and connecting rods (other LA engines used different rods).

      505 V-102002 - 20173.964.03
      488 V-101991 - 20023.884.00
      360 (5.9)1971-20023.584.00
      355 (racing)1975?-20013.464.05
      3401968-19733.314.04
      318 (5.2)1967-20023.313.91
      2731964-19693.313.63
      3.91988-20033.313.91
      EngineYears (USA)*StrokeBore
      273 V8

      The first engine in the LA series was the little 273, rated at 180 hp (gross) with a two barrel carburetor. In the 1965 cars, a four-barrel carb, new cam, and 10.5:1 compression pushed that up to 235 hp (280 lb-ft) in "Commando 273" form; and the 273 was made the base engine in the Plymouth and Dodge "intermediates," as well as being optional power for the Valiant and Barracuda.



      In the 1966 cars, a 700 cfm carb and .500" lift cam moved the power rating up to very respectable 275 hp.

      Engineer Pete Hagenbuch said:

      The LA (for Light A) engine was developed with a wedge chamber, first as a 273 cid and then as a 318. Remember, this was the time the car lines expanded to three bodies, A, B and C. The 273 was limited to the A and B bodies, with the 318 engine in the C Body, which was new to Plymouth at the time.

      Later came the 340 and then the 360, both with wedge chambers. And now, the one time state-of-the-art Mound Road Engine Plant is empty. The brand that used the majority of its production has disappeared too, to join ranks with names like Packard, Hudson, Desoto, Studebaker, Nash and Willys. ... It seems that a cherished name with a long history is not considered of value in this day and age.
      He also said there was no performance drop in going from the old polyspherical heads to the wedge design:

      The performance improved by getting rid of the silly polysphere.

      A wedge chamber does have some advantages. One of the advantages is that you can build in a lot of what we call squish, where the chamber is just part of the cylinder head surface and the piston have a flat area that matches up with it ... It gets the charge moving and mixed, moving through the chamber at high velocity, which means the flame travel is fast and there isn't anything left to burn by the time it gets to top dead center, where you expect the detonation. [This allows the use of much higher compression ratios.]
      1967 283 V82 barrel4 barrel
      Gross hp (Valiant)180 @ 4,200235 @ 5,200
      Torque (Valiant)260 @ 1,600260 @ 4,000
      Bore and Stroke3.63 x 3.313.63 x 3.31
      Compression Ratio :18.810.5

      The
      intake manifold was a hybrid single/dual plane design that
      used one plenum for each side of the engine, joined by a carefully sized rectangular passage that solved
      lean/rich problems that had occurred with the original "purely" dual plenum
      design that had dedicated one barrel of the Carter BBD two-barrel carburetor to each bank. This
      reduced the height of the engine and allowed
      installation in the Valiant. (Thanks, Jim Deane.)

      Since the bolt angle on the intake changed in 1966, the 1964-65 heads and intake are unique and cannot be interchanged with other LA engines or with the later 273. For the 1968 model year, Chrysler put a hydraulic cam into the 273.

      1969 was the final year for the 273, its thunder having been stolen by the LA 318; but it still got a new manifold heat control valve (also used on the 318) with a disc-shaped counterweight. The next major change was the launch of the 340 cubic inch V8 in the 1968 cars; with bigger valves and other changes, it was clearly meant to be the performance leader of the Chrysler small-block V8s. One technician wrote that the 340 peaked at 5,600 rpm, while the 318 peaked at 4,400 rpm (with tests done every 400 rpm).

      The 318 (5.2 Liter V-8)

      Depending on how you look at it, Chrysler either bored out the 273 LA to create the 318, or upgraded the old A-series 318 to the new LA-type heads and block. Either way, American-made 1967 cars and trucks had the new engine; Canadian vehicles waited for a year. US-built trucks may have used the A-series as well, but production was definitely closed by 1968 (Thanks, Marcus Reddish).



      The power ratings of the new LA-series 318 were exactly the same as those for the old polyspherical-head design, 230 hp and 340 lb-ft.

      Generally, the 318 was a workhorse engine, using a single two-barrel carburetor for most of its life; it took regular gas, and provided good power, reliability, and, for a V8 of its time, economy. Hydraulic lifters, used from the start (and installed on A-engines starting with the 1968 model year), meant that owners did not have to do periodic adjustments.

      USA specifications273 V8318 V8 (LA) 340 V8
      Gross horsepower, 1968
      (1962 for 318-A)
      190 @ 4400230 @ 4400275 @ 5000
      Torque, lbs.-ft. , 1968260 @ 2000340 @ 2400340 @ 3200
      Compression ratio, 19689.0 to 19.2 to 110.5 to 1
      Bore, inches3.633.914.04
      Stroke, inches3.3123.3123.312
      Carburetor type (1968-73)2-bbl.2-bbl.4-bbl.
      FuelRegularRegularPremium

      The 1969 model year brought a more reliable manifold heat control valve, using replaceable bushings for the valve shaft and a replaceable stainless steel internal seal to shield the bushings. Manifold heat control valve solvent can be squirted through the vent holes to keep the valve operating freely.

      Specifications (net)318
      (2 barrel)
      340
      (4 barrel)
      1971 horsepower155235 @ 4,400
      1972-75 horsepower150 @ 4,000
      1977 horsepower145 @ 4,000
      Torque, 1971 (SAE net)260 @ 1,600305 or 310
      Torque, 1971 (gross)230340 @ 3,200
      Torque, 1972-74260 @ 1,600
      Torque, lb-ft, 1975-77255 @ 1,600
      Compression (1971)8.6 to 110.3 to 1
      Compression (1973)8.6 to 18.5 to 1

      As for the 340 Six-Pack, preliminary 1971 materials showed it at 250 horsepower, net, at 4,800 rpm; and torque was listed as 325 lb-ft (SAE net) or 345 (old-style), at 3,400 rpm.

      Starting in 1973, Chrysler started using hardened valve seats to prepare for unleaded gasoline, since lead was being phased out of fuel. They did this by heating the seats to 1700°F and allowing them to air-cool.

      1976 figuresSlant Six Valiant318 V8 Valiant360 V8 Valiant440 Fury
      Low speed pass475 feet
      11.0 sec
      460 feet
      10.5 sec
      405 feet /
      8.6 sec
      400 feet
      8.4 sec
      High speed pass2090 feet
      24.8 sec
      1480 feet
      16.2 sec
      1245 feet
      13.3 sec
      1130 feet
      11.7 sec

      For 1977, F-bodies and B-bodies sold in high-altitude areas had altitude-adjustable carburetors; and the TorqueFlite torque converter was modified for better gas mileage and torque, with increased oil flow. The spark advance on these cars was also modified. Lean Burn was also set for a late 1977 launch on the 318 (except in California). Around this time, some 318 blocks were cast by International Harvester; they had the IH logo on the casting.



      In 1978, Chrysler noted with regard to the 318 and 360:

      The heat valve in the right exhaust manifold diverts hot gases to the floor of the intake manifold to vaporize the fuel mixture when the engine is cold. During warm-up, a thermostatic spring allows the heat valve to open to the exhaust pipe so gas flow through the intake manifold crossover passage is decreased.

      All 1978 Chrysler V-8 and 6-cylinder engines have an adaptor to receive a magnetic probe for timing the ignition magnetically (you can still set the ignition with a timing light).
      The engines had a second-generation Electronic Lean-Burn System for spark control, hydraulic valve lifters to avoid periodic adjustments, and cast iron cranks.



      [It now has a] carburetor over a half pound lighter than the previous carburetor, designed for solid-fuel operation. This means a solid, continuous stream of fuel is fed to the primary discharge nozzles by the metering system. The fuel is mixed with air upon entering the nozzles. The solid-fuel metering produces precise carburetion for good driveability with lean fuel-air mixtures.


      In California and some high-altitude locations, 1979 cars with the 318 had a Thermoquad four-barrel to boost performance in the face of primitive emissions systems; starting in 1981, the four barrel was available in trucks regardless of location.



      In 1980, Chrysler altered the 318's block, cam, exhaust manifold, and rear main bearing cap to save weight.

      The 1981 Diplomat and other M-bodies had an optional propane 318 system - factory engineered, built, and warranteed, it proved to be popular. More interesting was the use of Chrysler's second electronic fuel injection system (the first was used on the '58s and was very similar in design).



      T
      he system was something of a rush job, without enough testing. It used a single continous-flow spray bar, and fuel flow was controlled by changing the fuel pressure. Engineer Richard Samul wrote, "This system was prone to magnetic fields generated by power lines along roadways. This caused the fuel system to go rich at partial throttle and affected drivability." We have a large section on this system, with full details.

      More successful was an attempt to replace the 360 with the 318 on 1981 model-year cars, essentially by using a four-barrel carburetor. The 318 four-barrel, used on police pursuit and other cars, produed 165 hp and 240 lb-ft of torque. The two barrel was, by now, down to a mere 130 hp and 235 lb-ft of torque.

      318 throttle-body / roller-cam engines

      by Vince Spinelli and Jack Perkins

      In 1985, Chrysler switched from its original hydraulic lifters to a roller hydraulic lifter and a new matching camshaft; that both increased longevity (especially from cold starts) and allowed the company to use a steeper cam profile, and thus a more precise valve-train actuation. [Story of testing the roller cams] The company also raised its compression from 8.7:1 to 9.0:1, bringing power up to 140 hp and 265 lb-ft, where it would stay until the end of 318s for passenger-car production in 1989.



      Electronic fuel injection finally came to the 318 (and the 3.9 V6 based on it) in the 1988 Dodge trucks (but not cars). This was, in contrast to the Imperial's system, quite conventional, with a single dual-injector unit in the throttle body (one injector for each bank). Power output rose by a much-needed 20% to 170 hp and 280 lb-ft of torque. (In this year, oil capacity was reduced to five quarts, including filter.) See memories on the transition to fuel injection.

      Though the low-pressure, dual-injector system was not all it could be, it dramatically improved the V8's driveability and reduced maintenance, boosting gas mileage and power alike.

      The basic casting of the heads was the same, but the fine points were not; Chrysler added swirl intake ports to take advantage of the fuel injection. Since the pushrod angle was slightly changed by the taller lifters, the push rod guide holes were changed from roughly 0.5 inches to 0.66 inches. The push rods became shorter, and their diameter shrunk from 0.360" to 0.3125".

      The 360 was upgraded in the following year - rising to 190 hp and 292 lb-ft of torque.

      Magnum Engines (318/5.2, 360/5.9, 3.9 V6)

      Chris Theodore said:

      [After Chrysler bought AMC,] they tried to merge the two cultures, and so I was in charge of Jeep and Truck Powertrain. The first thing we started on were the Magnum engines, since the old 318 and 360 were still carbureted, and hadn't been improved in ages.



      ... Then they wanted to integrate the two groups, so they picked five guys from the Chrysler side and five guys from the AMC side, and moved me to Highland Park and some of the Chrysler Highland Park guys to the Plymouth Road facility. We were all kind of like fish out of water.
      The new engines came out on the 1993 Dodge Ram, Dodge Dakota, and vans. The main differences were in the high-swirl/high-flow heats, the better intake, and a sequential multiple-port fuel injection system which placed the injectors in the intake manifold, near the heads. This was controlled by a single-board computer, and fed by a returnless fuel supply with a higher-powered pump (aiming at a 90 psi fuel pressure). As with other Chrysler systems, the computer used signals from MAP (manifold pressure) sensor rather than a MAF (mass air-flow) sensor, calculating as needed. The Hall Effect crankshaft position sensor remained.



      Horsepower shot up dramatically, from 170 to 230 hp, and the 280 lb-ft of torque stayed constant. That put the 318's power well above its best carburetor days. (The 360 had to wait a year, gaining Magnum power in the 1993 trucks and vans.)

      Gary Howell wrote that "The Magnum blocks are physically the same as
      the earlier LA engines, except the oil passage for the shaft mounted
      rockers is not drilled, because the Magnum engines oil through the push
      rods. The boss is there if you need to use the old style heads."

      In 1996, as Dodge moved to the JTEC powertrain computer, the LA engine series gained OBD II on-board diagnostics, and EGR was dropped (late in the year for the 360).

      The 340: high performance in a small package

      The top LA engine for performance was almost certainly the 340 V-8, sold starting with the 1968 model year. It had high-flow heads, big ports, a
      two-level intake manifold, and a six-barrel option (three two-barrel
      carbs). (See the full page on the 340.)There were many differences between the 340 and 318 apart from
      the bored, which made the 340 far more powerful than the everyday 318.

      The six-barrel version of the 340 had extra material in the bulkheads for strength, allowing the use of 4 bolt main caps; it also had a different cam and heads. That version was to form the basis of the most potent LA engines ever: the race-only 355 V8.

      The 360

      Willem Weertman wrote that Chrysler wanted a low-cost engine between the 318 and 383 (like the B-series 361); the result was the 360, which debuted in early 1971. It had a cast crank and external
      balancing, and was the only LA engine
      without a 3.31" stroke, going up to 3.58".

      Raising the block decks would have been extremely expensive in tooling and time, so they cut the height of the piston to allow a little extra movement; and changed the radius of the crankshaft counterweights, so there would be more room at the bottom. To regain balance, they had to add weights to both ends of the crankshaft assembly, which meant redesigning the torque converter flex plate and flywheel, and adding an offset weight to the vibration damper on the front of the crank. There were numerous changes to the block, including movement of the core holes and higher-diameter main journals.



      The initial power ratings were 255 hp and 360 lb-ft, gross, or 175 hp and 285 lb-ft of torque net - right between the 318 and 340. The 360 replaced the 383 as the optional engine in the 1971 Dodge Polara and Plymouth Fury, and the base engine in the 1971 Chrysler Newport.

      For the 1974 Dodge line, a new variation of the 360 was made with a four-barrel carburetor, resulting in 200 hp and 290 lb.

      With the loss of the 340, though, something had to be done; so Chrysler swapped many of the 340's performance parts to the 360, including the four-barrel carburetor and the 268-276-44 cam. This brought power levels back up to 245 hp, net, and 320 lb-ft of torque.

      The 1975 model year brought up different issues; and another 360 variant with a four-barrel was produced for Califonia, with 190 hp and 270 lb-ft, and all emissions controls. The four-barrel had smaller primaries. Another version was produced for the Duster and Dart, with 230 hp and 300 lb-ft of torque.

      The
      360 was Chrysler's highest-performance V8 once the B-series engines were dropped in the late 1970s. It was used in patrol cars and the Volare Roadrunner and Kit Car - but was dropped in California at the end of the 1979 model year, and saw its final use in a sedan or coupe at the end of the 1980 model year. Still, it was popular in trucks and SUVs, eventually pushing the Grand Cherokee 5.9 Limited to become the fastest SUV.

      Police pursuit heads, dubbed "J" heads, had slightly larger (1.88") intake valves, according to Dave Lyle, and the valve springs were stiffened.



      As with the 318, all 360s had hydraulic lifters. In 1978, the 360 gained dual concentric throttle return springs in addition to a torsion throttle spring.

      1978CarburetorHorsepower (net)
      Torque (lb-ft)
      318 Fed.Carter 2-barrel145 @ 4000245 @ 1600
      318 (CA)Carter 2-barrel135 @ 4,000235 @ 1,600
      360Carter 2-barrel155 @ 3600275 @ 2000
      360 E584-barrel.220 @ 4,000280 @ 1,600
      4004-bbl[email protected] 3600305 @ 3200
      400 HD4-bbl190 @ 3600305 @ 3200

      The 1978 California version came with an air pump, which could be ordered elsewhere with the N96 emissions control package.

      In 1989, the 360 switched to roller cams and low-pressure throttle-body fuel injection (see the 318 section); and see the Magnum section for details on the "5.9" or 360 Magnum engines.

      All 360 production was moved to Mexico in 1980, according to
      Rodolfo Rodriguez. United States' use of the 360 ended in December 2002.

      Designed for aluminum engine blocks? (Mike Sealey)

      There
      is some evidence that the 273 was originally meant to be an aluminum-block engine, and was to power a stillborn A-body DeSoto. Motor Trend and other
      enthusiast magazines' "future products" sections mentioned the development of both compact Dodges and DeSotos and a V8 engine sharing many
      internal parts with the 318, but displacing about 270 cubic inches and
      using an aluminum block. (At around the same time, the company was producing some aluminum block Slant Sixes, but the effort was deemed to slow and costly for the benefits.)

      Motor Trend ran artist's conceptions of the
      proposed Dodge and DeSoto compacts; they accurately
      predicted Dodge's use of the "Lancer" name, the grillework, and the
      car's "character line," while missing on the taillight and rear
      fender treatment.

      Across-engine specifications



      1994 Engine

      Vehicles


      Power (bhp)


      Torque
      5.9 (360)Ram 1500 and 2500, Van, Wagon[email protected],000[email protected]
      5.9 (360)Dodge Ram 3500[email protected],000[email protected],800
      5.2 (318)Dakota, Ram Van, Ram Wagon[email protected][email protected]
      5.2 (318)Ram Pickup[email protected][email protected]
      3.9 V6Dakota, Ram Van, Ram Wagon175 @4800[email protected]
      3.9 V6Ram Pickup175 @4800[email protected]

      Identifying LA Series V-8 engines and parts interchange

      LA engines have the distributor at the rear; and the displacement shown on the left front of the block, below the left cylinder head. Valve covers are held on by five screws; it is easy to overtighten them. A rubber gasket plus RTV seems to work well.

      Robert Jones wrote: "All head gaskets for 318 LA series
      engine, even from Chrysler, are
      made to fit all bore sizes ranging from the 318 to 340. The fire ring
      is much larger on a 340 and the gasket thickness is closely matched
      to a 360 spec gasket, so the compression is reduced on replacement."

      Dave Wordinger wrote: "The
      1964-1965 273 head had the had the intake manifold bolt holes drilled
      at a different angle than the other LA heads, but will bolt to any LA
      block. The 1970 340-6 had the pushrod holes relocated. All other LA
      heads are interchangeable. The heads don't care what kind of camshaft
      or lifters you are using. The 1964-1967 273 had mechanical lifters. All
      1968 and newer LA engines had hydraulics."

      David William Elder
      wrote: "If you compare an early (such as 1968) 340 crank to a 318 crank
      of the same vintage you can clearly see the 340 casting is beefier. I
      think the two are the same numerically speaking but as far as strength the 340 is clearly the winner. The same goes for the
      connecting rods. The 273-318 connecting rods are similar to the 340s
      but a different casting with less 'beef'. I have actually
      seen some mid-70s truck and stationwagon 318s that came from the
      factory with 340 Six-Pak rods."

      Mark DuVerger wrote: "The 273 rods
      are not the same as a 318, they measure the same and look identical but
      are lighter; all 273 rods are full floating rods, 73
      and up 318s are press fit rods for the wristpin. The 273 will rev a lot faster than a 318, or a 340."

      Ed
      Prichard wrote: "Any intake that fits an LA 318 will
      also fit a 273. They will also fit 340s and 360s as well. But it is
      easier to find a "non-smog" intake for a 273 or 318 than a 360."

      See the starter page for information on starter interchangeability.



      318 V8 Engine Troubleshooting

      Duane D. Hughes wrote:

      My 1976 318 stumbled and sagged badly until it was fully warmed up, even when new, a classic sign of a lean mixture. A friend who worked at a Dodge dealer advised me to raise the metering rods about 1/16 th of an inch, which can be done without disassembling the carb. I did this on three different cars with Carter carburetors, and it worked each time.

      That car also pinged at light, not heavy, load, and on the slightest grade at highway speeds. I read that truck 318s had an adjustable vacuum advance on the distributor, accessible through the little hole where the vacuum line attaches to the vacuum advance unit. Sure enough, it had a screw to adjust the advance. Just a little playing around to get the right setting, and Voila! No more pinging. No change in mileage, either.


      From: Bruce Martin wrote: One very common fault with the otherwise
      wonderful 318 is that the exhaust crossover in the intake manifold
      (which warms the base of the carb) becomes clogged. This is common so
      it should be among the first things you check. (This problem was
      addressed on the Magnum engines)

      Ted Devey adds two more steps:

      1. Examine the reluctor teeth in the distributor for possible damage,
        nicks etc. which can happen if the gap gets too small. If there is
        damage to the teeth, replace the reluctor.
      2. Several years ago I dismantled the Carter 2-barrel
        carburetor and reassembled it with the jet assembly upside down. There
        is no obvious wrong way.
      Timing marks and removing the crank seal (360 but 318 is probably similar)

      The timing marks are located on the lower driver's side of the timing chain cover. If the car has extra brackets bolted on the bottom of the timing chain cover, they may hide the timing marks from being easily seen. Some early LA engines may have had the timing marks on the passenger side but certainly by 1977 they should all be on the driver's side. (Thanks, valiant67)



      When the timing chain cover seal is leaking, the harmonic balancer will need to be removed. It will require a 1 1/4" socket and a puller to remove the balancer. You will then be able to replace the crank seal (and maybe add a wear sleeve to the crank if the surface is worn).

      Links

      LA Series Components

      (Thanks to Stephen Havens)

      Valve sizes

      • 273 intake 1.78" exhaust 1.50"
      • 318 with 2bbl same as 273
      • 340 X heads 2.02 1.60
      • 360 all including J head 1.88 and 1.60
      Camshafts

      EngineSetup and camLiftersLiftDuration
      2732 barrel through 67Mechanical395/405240/240
      2732 barrel 68-69Hydraulic373/400240/248
      2734 barrelMechanical415/425248/248
      3182 barrel 67Hydraulic390/390244/244
      3182 barrel through 88Hydraulic373/400240/248
      3184 barrelHydraulic430/444268/276
      318roller camHydraulic391/391240/240
      3404 barrel 68 man transHydraulic444/453276/284
      3404 barrelHydraulic430/444268/276
      340 70six pakHydraulic430/444268/276 (adjustable rockers)
      3602 barrel 71-74Hydraulic410/412252/256
      3602bb 75-upHydraulic410/410252/252
      3604 barrelHydraulic430/444268/276
      Carburetors

      • 273 4V is AFB
      • 78-85 318 is Thermoquad
      • 86-91 318 is Quadrajet
      • 68-70 340 is AVS
      • 71-73 340 is Thermoquad
      • 74-85 360 is Thermoquad
      • 86-92 360 is Quadrajet
      • 273 2bbl is Carter BBD 1 1/4"
      • 67-73 318 is BBD 1 1/4" ( in 72 318 with A/C got Rodchester 2GV)
      • 74-91 318 Holley clone of BBD 2GV and BBD were all used, though no BBD past 85
      • 71-92 360 Carter BBD 1 1/2" and Holley clones post 85 maybe some Rochesters
      Relevant LA V8 engine links


      ( repair tips | performance tips)


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    1. · Premium Member
      Joined
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      3,295 Posts
      The B Engines: 350, 361, 383, and 400

      Thanks to Eddie Hostler and Hemi Andersen, and the Chrysler Engines book.

      by David Zatz

      Chrysler Corporation's first V8 engine tapped expertise in creating high-performance airplane motors; it was efficient, durable, powerful, costly, and slow to build. Soon, GM and Ford were selling cheap V8s hand over fist; and Chrysler rushed to design a new series of big-block V8s, ejecting hemispherical heads and other niceties.



      Volume was key. Originally, Chrysler had figured that the next best thing to Hemi was a polyspherical head - but it turned out those had little, if any, advantage over the wedge design. They added complexity, weight, and bulk, while their lack of a "squish" area restricted compression. Chrysler followed GM with the wedge design.


      Before making its own wedge engines, Dodge advertised the polyspherical design.


      According to Willem Weertman, later head of Chrysler engine development, creation of the B series of big block V8 engines was led Robert S. Rarey, starting in 1955 - with a deadline of production for the new 1958 large cars. They had to be capable of class-leading power, so Rarey specified the largest space between cylinder centers of any Chrysler engine, ever - 4.8 inches. The basic design allowed for a 3.75 inch stroke, partly by having both a low-deck block (the LB series, usually just called "B," with a top deck around 10 inches high) and a raised deck block (the RB series, with a 10.725 inch top deck height).

      350350361
      Used by DeSotoPlymouthDodge and DeSoto
      Horsepower (gross)280305305
      Torque380370400
      Carburetor2-barrelDual 4-barrel2-barrel

      Source: Chrysler Engines, by Willem Weertman

      To prevent flex, they used a deep skirt design and a five-bolt head bolt pattern for each cylinder, rather than the old four bolt setup, with five main bearings. At the same time, they tried to reduce weight, using short exhaust ports (which also cut heat rejection to the antifreeze) and side-by-side intake ports (1.95 inches in diameter in 1958; the exhaust port was 1.6 inches).



      Past V8s had the oil pump and distributor in the rear of the engine; now, they went up front, to make clearance easier. The oil pump had a die-cast cover that also mounted the spin-on filter. Engineers tried to prevent steam pockets in the water jacket design, and let oil from the valve rockers flow directly into the tappet chamber into the sump, without drilled drain holes in the head or block.



      The new engine used stamped steel rocker arms, which Weertman called "unprecedented;" they started with flat steel stock rather than machining it. They also had hydraulic tappets, to avoid the need for regular adjustments (most of the original Hemis had used hydraulic tappets, too).

      The "B" series wedge engines were launched in the 1958 cars, just seven years after the original Chrysler V8. Compared to the Hemi and Poly engines, it was light, simple, and cheap to build, yet still tough and sturdy.

      For this one year, they were produced in 350 and 361 cubic inch versions, both large-bore, short-stroke designs, with 10:1 compression and identical valve diameters; the Plymouth dual-four-barrel version had a unique camshaft, but the DeSoto two and four barrel versions shared a cam. Made in a newly repurposed plant, they started rolling off the line just in time for the 1958 cars.



      From the start, Plymouth, Dodge, and DeSoto shared the B-engine; Chrysler joined in a year later. This was part of a decision to have a single corporate engineering department for engines, after a bewildering variety of parts were created by the divisions as each produced a similar, but different, first-generation V8 engine with the same basic features.

      Both the 350 and 361 had a fuel injected version in 1958 only. Very few "fuelies" were made, and precious few remain, since most had carburetors fitted.

      The smallest, least potent B engine, the 1958 350 two-barrel - a one-year wonder used only by DeSoto - was rated at 280 horsepower and 380 pound-feet of torque, roughly matching the 1957 Plymouth Fury's 318 V8 (290 hp, 325 pound-feet), equipped with two four-barrel carburetors. That was a good sign.

      The Plymouth 350 four-barrel had 305 hp; the DeSoto Turboflash produced up to 295 hp; and the Dodge D-500, went up to 320 hp. The closely related 361 four-barrel, meanwhile, hit 305 horsepower and 400 pound-feet. This engine would last for many years, used in trucks long after the cars had moved on.

      B engines were designed from the start to handle ever-increasing amounts of power, with drop-forged steel connecting rods and a forged crankshaft. Maintenance and repair were eased by the external oil pump, dry intake, and front-mounted distributor, along with an easily changed water pump.



      Plymouth versions were called Golden Commando and Sonoramic Commando; Dodge versions, Super Red Ram (formerly used with the Hemi name) and D-500; DeSoto versions (starting in 1959), TurboFlash. These names were not necessarily used by anyone but marketers, but were, in some cases, emblazoned on the valve covers.



      In 1959, the 361 was bored out, creating the most common Mopar performance engine for the next decade: the 383. The big bore allowed for larger (2.08") intake valves, and the relatively short stroke helped it to be a free-revving engine as well as a free-breathing one. It launched on the 1959 DeSoto and Dodge cars. This first-year 383 had the same cam timing as the 1958-59 350 and 361 (except the Plymouth Fury version).

      1959361 383
      Carburetor2 barrel2 barrel
      Horsepower305305
      Torque400410

      The DeSoto two-barrel version of the new 383 provided 305 horsepower and 410 pound-feet of torque, an inauspicious beginning. The four-barrel version, coded D-500 by Dodge for that year, was rated at 320 horsepower. DeSoto's four-barrel (standard on the Fireflight) had an extra five horsepower and an extra five pound-feet, at least according to advertising; there may not have been any actual difference.

      There was, though, a new attraction for the 1960 cars: a dual-four barrel version of the 361 and 383, with a long cross-ram setup.



      The first major performance engine in the B series was the 1960 dual-carburetor D500 ram induction package, bringing up to 330 hp and 460 pound-feet of torque; it used a "cross-ram" manifold (the carburetors were on opposite sides of the engine from the cylinders they fed, crossing the valley, to gain the required tube length).



      The tubes had an internal length of 30 inches at first, for an added boost while passing on the highway; this was altered to 15 inches later, in some engines, for racing purposes.



      The compression ratios for the 361 were dropped from 10:1 to 9:1, for the 1961 cars, so owners could switch to regular fuel instead of premium. Power dropped somewhat, but the 383 was available for those who wanted more. The four-barrel 361 only lasted to the end of 1962; and the two-barrel was only used in cars through 1966.

      1960
      Dodge V8s
      Super
      Red Ram
      D500 (1)D500 (2)Ram-Fire
      Cubic Inches361361383383
      Bore x Stroke4.12 x 3.384.12 x 3.384.25 x 3.384.25 x 3.38
      Carburetor2-barrel4-barrel4-barrel4-barrel
      Gross hp
      295 @ 4,600320 330 @ 4,800325 @ 4,600
      Max torque
      390 @ 2,400420460 @ 2,800425 @ 2,800

      Carburetion in 1961 was supplied by a two barrel Stromberg model WWC carburetor (3-188). This carburetor had a rubber-tipped needle valve in the float bowl, to prevent small dirt particles from causing problems; it had a two-stage set-up jet for good fuel flow at cruising speeds. The 1960 cars gained a three-stage metering rod.



      1961 was the first year for the closed crankcase ventilation system used on all cars sold in California, designed to painlessly reduce smog. A flexible tube connected a valve and a specially calibrated carburetor; the carburetor had a fitting just below the throttle blades into which the crankcase vapors were drawn by suction. From here they were drawn into the intake manifold for burning, leaving fewer vapors to be discharged into the atmosphere. All cars now use this system.


      Engines did not really have chrome-plated fans, oil filter covers, valve covers, or air cleaner housings.

      Just as the 361 had been converted to run on regular gas in 1961, the two-barrel 383 was made compatible with regular gas in the 1965 cars, with compression dropping to 9.2:1. (Later, it would fall further - to 8.7:1 in the 1970 cars, and 8.5:1 a year later - to drop emissions).

      In 1966, the truck 361 was rated at 186 horsepower at 4,000 rpm and included induction-hardened crankshaft journals, trimetal main and connecting rod bearings, hydraulic valve lifters, sodium-filled exhaust valves with Roto-Caps, and a chrome-alloy cast-iron block.

      A special version of the 383 was created for the 1968 Plymouth Road Runner; it had heads, intake, camshaft, and exhaust manifolds from the 440 Super Commando. Those changes made it the fastest 383 ever, with 335 horsepower and 425 pound-feet of torque; the engine had a 9.5:1 compression ratio, single four-barrel carburetor, and a dual-snorkel air cleaner... and that was the base engine. The options were a 440 with three carburetors or a twin four-barrel 426 Hemi. This version of the 383 did not stay exclusive to the Road Runner for long.



      Starting in 1970, the 383's peak power started to drop, as compression was lowered to cut back on emissions. The first drop was to 8.7:1 in 1970; then to 8.5:1 in the 1971 cars. The lower compression dropped horsepower ratings - but not nearly as much as changing the way horsepower was measured.

      1971 383 four-barrel
      (Road Runner)
      GrossNet
      Horsepower300250
      Torque410325

      Net horsepower ratings, adopted in 1972, caused many to think that horsepower took a sudden dive; in reality, horsepower was now measured with the air cleaner, water pump, alternator, muffler, and other "accessories." The transition year, 1971, saw both gross and net numbers published for some engines in 1971 (see the charts).



      In 1972, the Trenton Engine plant's "B" line switched to a single new bore size, 4.34 inches, bringing the 383 up to 400 cubic inches; compression dropped down to 8.2:1 at the same time. The net power of this new engine was 190 hp and 310 pound-feet of torque with the two-barrel, and 255/340 with the four-barrel - a decent gain in power over the 1971 383. (Rick Ehrenberg of Mopar Action wrote that the original idea behind the 400 was to standardize all B and RB engines with a 4.32" bore; Marketing believed that the 400 would sell better than a 396. Hemi Andersen pointed out that the 360, which had been introduced in 1971, may have been too close to the 383 in displacement; the 400 would provide a better gap.)

      The 400 had a ductile iron crankshaft, replacing the forged steel crank; this cut costs but, under normal conditions, was durable enough.

      Hemi Andersen wrote that changing the crankshaft also meant the need for an eccentric weight in the harmonic balancer, and the addition of a weight to the torque converter. In short, the engine needed to be externally balanced, while the past B and RB engines did not.

      Starting in 1973, exhaust-valve seats were induction-hardened to allow use of lead-free fuels. In the hardening process, seats reach a temperature of 1700°F and are then allowed to air-cool. This hardened the valve seat surfaces to a depth of .05" to .08" which gives them greater resistance to wear than unhardened seats. The addition of the Chrysler electronic ignition system, which had been launched in some 1972 cars, eased maintenance requirements and increased reliability.

      From 1973 to 1978, emissions equipment continued to become more complex, as engineers worked minor miracles to get carburetors to work more efficiently under all conditions. Fuel injectors were suggested, according to Allpar interviews, but rejected due to cost (which was most likely far less than the cost of the extra warranty work and lost customers). The 1975 addition of Electronic Lean Burn, the world's first computerized spark advance system, helped somewhat.



      Two-barrel 400s were dropped in 1976, by which time their output was 175 hp and 300 pound-feet. In the 1978 cars and trucks, the 400-cubic-inch V-8 engines gained dual concentric throttle return springs in addition to a torsion throttle spring. Like all Chrysler V-8 engines, it gained an adapter so mechanics could use a magnetic probe to set the timing.



      The performance aspects of the B and RB engines had faded from 1971 until the last one was produced in August 1978. The last vehicle built with a Chrysler big block was a pickup truck made in 1979.

      Mopar B and RB engine parts, and engine identification

      Over three million 383 engines were produced through 1971, and over 750,000 440 engines were made, which makes many parts readily available.

      Which engine do you have? Check the passenger side of the block, underneath the distributor, for a bit of smooth steel with a number code.



      The first line has a letter for the year (D = 1968), followed by three digits for displacement (e.g. 440). The date (month and day) are on a line below, with an HP denoting High Performance where applicable. The tag will be just to the right of the distributor on RB engines. Special information (such as undersize crankshaft) may be next to the engine size.

      Most B series engines have parts interchangeability, with a few exceptions. The RB, on the other hand, had a wider intake manifold, larger crankshaft main bearing, and various changes to allow for the longer stroke.

      The two 383 engines (by Curtis Redgap)

      The Chrysler 383 RB was an odd engine, created because Chrysler wanted a 383 but the factory could only produce enough 383 "B" engines for Dodge, Plymouth, and DeSoto. However, the new RB assembly line was under-used; so an RB 383 was created, in two and four barrel versions, for two years. When capacity constraints were removed, the RB 383 was replaced by the "normal" 383.

      Other articles




      BlockBoreStrokeCIDBlockBoreStrokeCID
      Low Block4.063.38350High Block4.183.75413
      (B)4.123.38361(RB)4.253.75426
      4.253.38383 4.323.75440
      4.343.38400 4.03.75383

      Specifications for
      1958 Dodge models
      Red Ram
      (325 Poly)
      Super Red Ram
      (350/361 B engine)
      Type90 deg V890 deg V8
      Valve ArrangementIn Head Single Rocker Shaft
      Bore3.69"4.0625" (350)
      4.125" (361)
      Stroke3.80"3.375"
      Piston Displacement (cu. inch)325.0 Cu350 and 361
      Taxable Horsepower (AMA)43.952.81 (350)
      Compression Ratio8.5 to 110 to 1
      Compression Pressure (minimum 150 rpm,
      plugs removed, wide open throttle)
      90 (min) - 155 (max)150 (min) - 180 (max)
      Maximum Variation Between Cylinders15 lbs25 lbs
      Firing order1-8-4-3-6-5-7-21-8-4-3-6-5-7-2
      Cylinder numbering (from drivers seat,
      front to rear)
      1-3-5-7 left, 2-4-6-8 right
      Engine Lubrication: Pump TypeRotary Full Pressure
      Camshaft drive
      Rotary Full Pressure
      Camshaft drive
      Crankcase Capacity (qts)54
      Minimum Pump Pressure at 500 rpm15 psi15 psi
      Operating Pressure at 40 to 50 mph 1500 RPM50-65 lbs45-70 lbs
      Oil Filter TypeShunt; replaceable
      element
      Full Flow; replace
      assembly
      Cylinder Bore (std)3.6875-3.6895"4.0625-4.0845"
      Cylinder Bore Out-of Round
      (max. before reconditioning)
      .005".005"
      Cylinder Bore taper (max. before reconditioning).020".010"
      Max allowable over bore.060".040"
      Camshaft DriveChainChain
      End play.002-.006"002-.006"
      Max allowable.010".010"
      Radial clearance.001-.003".001-.003"
      Max allowable.010".005"
      Camshaft chain
      Number of links6850
      Pitch.375".50"
      Width1 1/8".88"
      Camshaft Journals Diameter and Length - #11.998-1.99 x 7/8"
      #2 1.982-1.983 x 3/4"
      #31.967-1.968 x 3/4"
      #41.951-1.952 x 3/4"
      #51.4355-1.4365 x 15/16"
      Crankshaft TypeFully Counterbalanced
      BearingsSteel Backed Babbitt
      Thrust taken byNo.3 main bearing
      End Play.002-.007"
      Max allowable.010"
      Radial Clearance.0005-.0015"
      Max allowable.0025"
      Finish at rear Oil Seal SurfaceDiagonal Knurling
      Main bearing Size Diameter and lengthNo.1 2.50 x.73"
      No.2 2.50 x.73"
      No.3 2.50 x.72"
      No.4 2.50 x.73"
      No.5 2.50 x 1.19"
      Main bearing Journals Diameter2.52.625
      Max Allowable Out of round.001".001"
      Max Allowable Taper.001".001"
      Center Bearing Run-Out
      (total indicator reading)
      when supported at front and rear main bearing
      .002".002"
      Crankpin Journals
      Diameter2.2495-2.2505"2.2495-2.2505"
      Max Allowable Out of round.001".001"
      Max Allowable Taper.001".001"
      Connecting Rods
      Length (center to center)6.626.358
      Weight (less bearing shell)22.528.6
      BearingsSteel Backed BabbittSteel Backed Babbitt
      Diameter and Length2 1/4 x 13 /16"2.375 x .927"
      Clearance.0005-.0015".0002-.0022"
      Max allowable.0025".0025"
      Side Clearance.009-.017".009-.017"
      Connecting Rod Bushing TypeSteel Backed Bronzenone
      Diameter and Length1.110-1.125-.9217-.9220____
      PistonsConformatic with Steel Strut /
      Horizontal Slot with Steel Band
      MaterialAluminium alloy tin coated
      Land Clearance (in Bore).027-.033".042-.047"
      Clearance (top of Skirt).0005-.0015".0005-.0015"
      Weight (Standard through all oversize)18.6 oz705 gram
      Ring Groove Width (upper).032".032"
      (intermediate).0790-.0800".0790-.0800"
      (lower).1875-.1890".1875-.1890"
      Valves (intake)
      Head Diameter1.84"1.95"
      Length (overall)4.31"4.81"
      Stem Diameter.37".37"
      Stem to Guide Clearance.002".002"
      Max. allowable.004".004"
      Face angle45 deg45 deg
      Valves (Exhaust)
      Head Diameter1.47"1.60"
      Length (overall)4.31"4.81"
      Stem Diameter.37".37"
      Stem to Guide Clearance.003".003"
      Max. allowable.006".006"
      Face angle45 deg45 deg
      Valve guides
      TypeCast in HeadCast in head
      Size.374".374"
      Valve Springs
      Pressure when compressed (Valve Closed)1.69"-72 lbs1.86"-75 to 85 lbs
      Pressure when compressed (Valve Open)1.31"-166lbs1.47"-173 to 187 lbs
      Valve spring installed height
      (spring seat to retainer)
      1 5/8 - 1 11/16"1 55/64"



      R E L E V A N T B O O K S



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    1. · Administrator
      1974 Plymouth Valiant - 2013 Dodge Dart - 2013 Chrysler 300C
      Joined
      ·
      25,581 Posts
      We attended a seminar in Highland Park in the early 70s given by an engineer at Chrysler. He said to us that the six was originally intended to replace the slant six in trucks as it could be made bigger. But they decided to pass on it and gave it to the Aussies. I stand behind my story.
      I think we are both right... Weertman's book differs from Weertman's interview. In the interview, he makes it clear the engine was designed from the ground up for Australia, and a truck version was considered but never really pursued. In the book, he wrote that they had been doing design studies on a large six in Highland Park, including a truck version, but never got beyond design studies.

      From there:
      The arrangement made with Chrysler Australia was that Engine Design would make the basic design of the engine and that Engine Development would procure a small number of proto- type engines for initial development in the United States. Fol- lowing initial development, the entire engine program would be turned over to Chrysler Australia for completion by its engineering staff.

      In short, there was a design study of a truck engine that was never developed, based on three car-engine design studies, one of which used an overhead cam. One of these design studies was made into an engine for Australia. But it was never designed solely as a truck engine. He was quite clear that no truck engine prototypes were ever made.

      Once the Australian engines (245 and 265) were created,
      I f the manufactming costs were reasonable, an engine of this size had the potential for substantial sales volume in Dodge trucks in the medium-duty
      six-cylinder market segment dominated by the Ford 300-cu.-in. and Chevrolet 292-cu .-in. six-cylinder truck engines.
      A plan to build these large-displacement sixes in Australia and import them to the United States was worked out in some detail with Jim Harbour, head of Manufacturing Facilities Planning; however, the plan was never implemented due to investment costs. Jim Harbour later left the corporation to form his own consulting company, Harbour & Associates, which has gained industry renown for its expertise in assessing car assembly plant productivity efficiencies.


       
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