Yesterday, federal judge Jesse Furman rejected a lawsuit from investors who sued FCA in the aftermath of an EPA action against its diesel-powered Ram 1500 and Jeep Grand Cherokee .

The judge ruled that the investors did not provide evidence that company leaders were “consciously reckless” or deliberately lying when saying that their vehicles complied with emissions rules.  His decision ends a lawsuit that would have been costly whether FCA won or lost.

FCA officials have credibly claimed they did not know of the issues, and prior Allpar research indicated that, in all likelihood, the suspect tuning came from supplier Bosch, one or two people at VM USA, or a company half-owned by Volkswagen.