The Matra Rancho: Chrysler Europe's Car-Based SUV
by Andy Thompson and Keith Adams. Pictures supplied by Lennart Sorth and Graham Arnold.
Thanks to Matt Cotton
for sharing his extensive collection of images!
After being in the auto industry for more than a hundred years, France's main contribution to the sport utility boom that swept the world at the end of the twentieth century was a small wagon that talked the talk but couldn't really walk the walk. The Matra Rancho was one of the most macho looking cars ever made but it was a real softie at heart.
France's first serious attempt at a multi-purpose utility vehicle came from Matra, a small-scale specialist producer under Chrysler's wing. The Matra Bagheera had been well received by the press and buyers alike, and the company decided that it was ready for expansion. Matra needed to develop a car that would fit neatly into the Chrysler range but also attract new buyers. The mechanical parts would come from Simca, Matra's industrial partner. Badging would include both Matra and SIMCA names, all sold under the Chrysler banner.
The project was given added impetus by the 1973 fuel crisis. Matra Automobiles had specialised in building sports cars, including the Simca-powered Bagheera
. The company was apprehensive that the aftershock of the crisis would reduce demand for sports cars. At the same time, they noticed the success of the Range Rover - a strong seller in spite of its thirsty V8 engine. Matra reasoned that there could be a market for a car that looked as rugged as the Range Rover but which was lighter, cheaper, and fuel efficient.
Chrysler, which owned Simca, supported the idea. The Simca 1200 Campero, a Simca 1100 based utility vehicle produced by a Spanish dealer, may have influenced that decision. Chrysler was reported to have taken one back to France. Matra, looking for something to build alongside the Bagheera, was happy to pick up on the idea. They launched into the development of a similar project to the Campero, based upon the 1976 Simca 1100 VF3, a commercial version of the small car with a roofline raised by eight inches.
The idea of basing the new Matra on the front wheel drive Simca 1100
platform was sound. The 1100 was produced in large numbers, the French public loved it, and its mechanical bits were tried and tested. It also meant that the new car could be developed within a limited budget.
The Simca 1100 spawns the Matra Rancho car-based SUV
The new car was christened P12 and was developed into a faux off-roader with many of the styling attributes associated with the Range Rover, such as its horizontally split tailgate.
It was launched in Europe as the Matra-Simca Rancho in May 1977, arriving on the British market in May 1978. Most of the rear body was made from a fibreglass clad steel frame with large picture windows in the sides and large rear tailgate. The back seat was ten centimetres higher than the front seats to give back seat passengers a sense of adventure. The maximum load space was nearly seven feet long and could accommodate 77 cubic feet of cargo with the seats down.
Underneath, it was pure Simca 1100, based on a reinforced, lengthened Simca/Dodge 1100 pickup chassis. Changes included a strengthened floor pan, sheet steel front section, and glass-reinforced polyester rear on a metal frame, designed to be light, tough, and easy to repair. The interior included reclining front seats, split folding rear seat, and, starting in 1981, a fold-down rear-facing bench seat to hold six people. The split tailgate provided four ways to handle luggage.
The Rancho shared its torsion bar front and rear suspension with the 1100 but it was fitted with an 1442cc 8 CV Simca 1308/Chrysler Alpine
engine producing roughly 80 hp (DIN). This helped propel the new car to 91 mph although fuel consumption was fairly high as the car was only slightly more aerodynamic than a brick; premium gas was required unless the buyer ordered the Grand Raid or the standard Rancho with the optional, lower-
power engine (French figures from 1982). Two horsepower could be sacrificed to use regular gas, with a slight increase in fuel usage, due to the lower compression. The Rancho AS provided a substantial increase in gas mileage.
| ||Rancho*, Rancho X||Grand Raid||Rancho AS|
|hp/kW||77 / 57.2||75 / 55.7||77 / 57.2|
|Fuel use at 90 km/h||8.0 liters/100 km||8.1 liters/100 km|| 7.7 liters/100 km|
|Gas mileage at 56 mph (US)||29 mpg||29 mpg||30.5 mpg|
|Fuel use at 120 km/h (75 mph)||11.5 liters/100 km||11.2 liters/100 km|| 11.1 liters/100 km|
|Urban fuel use||9.8 liters/100 km||10.5 liters/100 km|| 9.4 liters/100 km|
|City cycle mpg (US)||24 mpg||22.4 mpg||25 mpg|
* Rancho could also be ordered with the engine used in the Rancho Grand Raid. This engine only required regular gas.
Brakes came from the high performance Simca 1100 TI, the doors, front wings, windscreen and wings from the 1100 Pick Up and the dashboard from the hatchback 1100. Unique sports style wheels were fitted along with large plastic bumpers and grilles over the lights. Two spotlights were mounted on the front wings, next to the windscreen pillars; these only worked with the ignition switched off!
On top of the steel roof over the front two seats was a matt black plastic roof rack. This was to provide additional storage space and to try and disguise the sudden change in roofline between the Simca derived cab and the glass fibre rear extension. Matte black wheel arch extensions, side rubbing strips, bumpers and window frames were fitted to give the Rancho an aggressive yet practical appearance. Even the steering wheel was black. Accessories available included a third back seat.
Although the final production car was front wheel drive only, Matra did experiment with four-wheel-drive versions. With the limited development budget available, developing a 4X4 was not really a viable option - in any case, it would have meant extra weight and fuel consumption. However, the Rancho did come with a sump guard just in case owners headed for the hills. The company had also hoped to replace the 1442cc carburettor fed engine with a 1600 cc fuel injected unit - again, another plan that remained but a pipe dream.
Lack of four wheel drive was perhaps the biggest disappointment of the car, which certainly looked every bit the part of the go anywhere, do anything type of vehicle that would appeal to upwardly mobile adventurous young people. Publicity photographs featured people using their Rancho to indulge in various outdoor sports in what were supposed to be out of the way places. With just front wheel drive and ground clearance limited to six inches, the Rancho would not be an ideal choice for getting through the jungle or across the steppes.
Britain's Motor magazine described the Rancho as: "well equipped and fun to drive." However, their overall view was that: "it is a compromise: more capable that the average estate but difficult to take seriously as an off road vehicle."
It did have lots of style as well as lots of room and made an interesting and good looking alternative to the other options that were available in the late seventies to those with demanding leisure interests. This growing group of car buyers had a choice of an estate car version of a regular saloon or a small van - maybe with windows cut into the sides later. Chrysler's press department described its as "a multi purpose leisure vehicle" and the Rancho came fourth in the 1977 Car of the Year competition.
The Rancho found favour with buyers, especially in its native France, who appreciated its huge interior space and limited off-road ability. Car magazines tended not to understand the Rancho, questioning why it should look the way it did, whilst not being able to back up the macho image with genuine off-road ability. Buyers, on the other hand, understood it immediately...form over function!
At the British launch Chrysler said: "the Rancho has become a very fashionable car in which to be seen along the boulevards of Paris." The Rancho may not have had the capability of a Land Rover but it cost 20% less and looked like it cost 20% more. Chrysler bragged, "Rancho can tackle tough terrain, tow your boat, and pack in a mountain of gear... in saloon car comfort, at speeds up to 92 mph... at a steady 56 mph, you'll get up to 31.7 miles per gallon. Rancho's sturdy body is protected by massive bumpers, side mouldings and wheel arches, and there's a front crash bar. The split tailgate has its own wash-wipe, the roof-rack is integral... halogen headlights and auxiliary driving lights are augmented by wing-mounted movable lights... side repeater flashers, rear fog lamps, ... and servo-assisted dual-assisted braking."
In 1979, the Rancho was offered with a low compression petrol engine, the idea being to allow lower octane petrol to be used which was useful for support exports to those countries where petrol was generally of a lower grade than that available in France. This engine option was not offered to British buyers.
In October 1980, the Rancho gained electronic ignition (invented by Chrysler), a special economy tune carburetor, a slightly lower differential ratio, and a radio. This allowed the Rancho, with its 1.4 liter engine, to achieve 35.3 mpg at a constant speed of 56 mpg.
During 1980 Matra had developed project P-18 as a replacement for the Rancho. This was a much larger concept than the Rancho although it was based on the Talbot Solara floorpan which was itself based on the same Simca 1100 chassis that underpinned the Rancho. Peugeot didn't feel they had the money to develop the new project and Matra was turned down. Matra then approached Renault with their new idea. Renault felt that the Matra Murena was competition for their Alpine and Fuego models and demanded that production of the Murena be stopped first.
Just before Christmas 1983, when the Matra factory closed down for the holidays, the last Murena - a red 142bhp Murena S - rolled off the production line. The plant was converted to produce the P18, which became one of Europe's most influential cars - the Renault Espace, Europe's first people carrier. Without the Simca-sponsored Rancho, Matra - and Renault - would never have made the Espace.
The relationship between Matra and Peugeot became strained thanks to the burgeoning co-operation of Matra with Renault. Sales of the Rancho were more than the double the forecasts. Thanks to low development and production costs, Rancho was also the most profitable Matra until the Espace. However, Peugeot took a fair slice of the profit on each car and had turned down Matra's next big idea. Matra took a strategic decision to end production of the Rancho in 1984 and concentrate their efforts on the Espace - a wise decision because Espace production soon climbed to 300 cars per day! It became the most produced car in Matra's history, taking that record from the Rancho.
The Rancho remained on sale until early 1985, having been renamed the Matra-Talbot Rancho in 1982 as a result of Peugeot's buyout of Chrysler's European operations. Even though Matra was, since 1980, increasingly focused on the P18/Espace project, they did not neglect the Rancho.
The Rancho Grand Raid was launched in 1980, intended for use over rougher country than the standard model. It featured a limited slip differential to mitigate the limitations of front wheel drive. Other additional equipment included floor protection, electric windows and tinted glass, a front mounted electric winch capable of hauling a 1,200kg load and heavy duty tyres. The Grand Raid, which was never sold in Britain, was only sold in matte green with safari beige trim.
Also announced in 1980 was the Rancho X, a more luxurious model with metallic paint, alloy wheels, tinted glass and posher trim. The limited edition Midnight, a special model available only in black, was announced during 1980. This model was the only Rancho to feature chrome trim, albeit restricted to the door handles, a bull bar at the front and the side rails of the cab-based roof rack. Only a hundred are believed to have been made. Neither the X nor the Midnight made it across the Channel.
There was a special version, the Rancho AS, designed to exploit French tax laws that smiled favourably on utility vehicles. It had the rear seats removed, giving more load space, and was marketed as a workman's truck; this was sold only in France.
The Rancho Découvrable appeared in 1981, with canvas sides to create a more Jeep-like vehicle. Two colours were offered - green or brown. Seats were vinyl trimmed rather than the cloth used on the fully enclosed versions. No more than two hundred were built, most winding up on the Spanish Mediterranean coast and in the Greek islands.
After that, changes were minor. The original mirrors and the chrome-plated window handles were replaced in 1982 with parts used on the Matra Bagheera II and Murena 1.6.
The Rancho's Legacy
Just under 56,700 Ranchos were built between 1977 and 1984. Unfortunately, none of them were particularly well protected against rust. As a result, there are surprisingly few Ranchos left. The engines last but the bodies rust. If you see one, it is a nice gesture to complement the owner on what is a true labour of love.
The Rancho's contemporary French competitors, apart from regular estate cars, were soft roaders such as 2CV-based Citroën Mehari and the Renault Rodeo, based on the Renault Four. These were rather crude and much less powerful than the Rancho.
In Britain, the Rancho was priced to compete with much bigger cars. In 1978, when it was launched, the Rancho was priced at £5,650 - which put it up against such competition as the Volvo 245 DL at £5,357 and the Citroen CX2400 Safari at £5428. The Rover 2600 may not have had as much space but its payload at 1,268 pounds was much greater than the Rancho's 1,025 pounds. Having said that, a Range Rover would have cost £8,528!
Real 4X4 competition did not really exist below the Land Rover. The Japanese baby 4X4s such as the Suzuki SJ410 and the Daihatsu were only starting to appear on European roads and were firmly marketed as working cars. Subaru were only just becoming known outside of Asia. The Russian Lada Niva was perhaps the most realistic competitor to Rancho, offering true off road ability with its coil sprung four wheel drive chassis and tough 1600 engine. Its price was, like all Comecon cars, extremely competitive. Build quality wasn't good but the Niva did have at least some protection against rust.
The Rancho's influence on the automotive world was not immediate, but in time it made its mark.
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